EPP

地球与行星物理

ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

2019 Vol.3(5)

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
PLANETARY SCIENCES
Photoelectron balance in the dayside Martian upper atmosphere
XiaoShu Wu, Jun Cui, Jiang Yu, LiJuan Liu, ZhenJun Zhou
2019, 3(5): 373-379. doi: 10.26464/epp2019038
Abstract:
Photoelectrons are produced by solar Extreme Ultraviolet radiation and contribute significantly to the local ionization and heat balances in planetary upper atmospheres. When the effect of transport is negligible, the photoelectron energy distribution is controlled by a balance between local production and loss, a condition usually referred to as local energy degradation. In this study, we examine such a condition for photoelectrons near Mars, with the aid of a multi-instrument Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution data set gathered over the inbound portions of a representative dayside MAVEN orbit. Various photoelectron production and loss processes considered here include primary and secondary ionization, inelastic collisions with atmospheric neutrals associated with both excitation and ionization, as well as Coulomb collisions with ionospheric thermal electrons. Our calculations indicate that photoelectron production occurs mainly via primary ionization and degradation from higher energy states during inelastic collisions; photoelectron loss appears to occur almost exclusively via degradation towards lower energy states via inelastic collisions above 10 eV, but the effect of Coulomb collisions becomes important at lower energies. Over the energy range of 30–55 eV (chosen to reduce the influence of the uncertainty in spacecraft charging), we find that the condition of local energy degradation is very well satisfied for dayside photoelectrons from 160 to 250 km. No evidence of photoelectron transport is present over this energy range.
SPACE PHYSICS: MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS
Statistical study on interplanetary drivers behind intense geomagnetic storms and substorms
Tian Tian, Zheng Chang, LingFeng Sun, JunShui Bai, XiaoMing Sha, Ze Gao
2019, 3(5): 380-390. doi: 10.26464/epp2019039
Abstract:
Geomagnetic storms and substorms play a central role in both the daily life of mankind and in academic space physics. The profiles of storms, especially their initial phase morphology and the intensity of their substorms under different interplanetary conditions, have usually been ignored in previous studies. In this study, 97 intense geomagnetic storms (Dstmin ≤ –100 nT) between 1998 and 2018 were studied statistically using the double superposed epoch analysis (DSEA) and normalized superposed epoch analysis (NSEA) methods. These storms are categorized into two types according to different interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz orientations: geomagnetic storms whose IMF is northward, both upstream and downstream relative to the interplanetary shock, and geomagnetic storms whose upstream and downstream IMF is consistently southward. We further divide these two types into two subsets, by different geomagnetic storm profiles: Type I/Type II — one/two-step geomagnetic storms with northward IMF both upstream and downstream of the interplanetary shock; Type III/TypeIV — one/two-step geomagnetic storms with southward IMF both upstream and downstream of the interplanetary shock. The results show that: (1) geomagnetic storms with northward IMF both upstream and downstream of the interplanetary shock have a clear initial phase; geomagnetic storms with southward IMF in both upstream and downstream of the interplanetary shock do not; (2) the IMF is an important controlling factor in affecting the intensity characteristics of substorms. When Bz is positive before and after the interplanetary shock arrival, the Auroral Electrojet (AE) index changes gently during the initial phase of geomagnetic storms, the median value of AE index is maintained at 500–1000 nT; (3) when Bz is negative before and after the interplanetary shock arrival, the AE index rises rapidly and reaches its maxmum value about one hour after storm sudden commencements (SSC), although the time is scaled between reference points and the maximum value of AE is usually greater than 1,000 nT, representing intense substorms; (4) for most cases, the Dst0 usually reaches its minimum at least one hour after Bz. These results are useful in improving contemporary space weather models, especially for those that address geomagnetic storms and substorms.
SPACE PHYSICS: IONOSPHERIC PHYSICS
Stimulated electromagnetic emissions spectrum observed during an X-mode heating experiment at the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association
Xiang Wang, Chen Zhou, Tong Xu, Farideh Honary, Michael Rietveld, Vladimir Frolov
2019, 3(5): 391-399. doi: 10.26464/epp2019042
Abstract:
An extraordinary (X-mode) electromagnetic wave, injected into the ionosphere by the ground-based heating facility at Tromsø, Norway, was utilized to modify the ionosphere on November 6, 2017. The high-power high-frequency transmitter facility located at Tromsø belongs to the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association. In the experiment, stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) spectra were observed. A narrow continuum occurred under cold-start conditions and showed an overshoot effect lasting several seconds. Cascading peaks occurred on both sides of the heating frequency only in the preconditioned ionosphere and also showed an overshoot effect. These SEE features are probably related to the ponderomotive process in the X-mode heating experiment and are helpful for understanding the physical mechanism that generated them during the X-mode heating experiment. The features observed in the X-mode heating experiments are novel and require further investigation.
ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS
The tropical Pacific cold tongue mode and its associated main ocean dynamical process in CMIP5 models
Yang Li, QuanLiang Chen, JianPing Li, WenJun Zhang, MinHong Song, Wei Hua, HongKe Cai, XiaoFei Wu
2019, 3(5): 400-413. doi: 10.26464/epp2019041
Abstract:
The cold tongue mode (CTM), which represents the out-of-phase relationship in sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) variability between the Pacific cold tongue region and elsewhere in the tropical Pacific, shows a long-term cooling trend in the eastern equatorial Pacific. In this study, we investigate how well the CTM is reproduced in historical simulations generated by the 20 models considered in Phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Qualitatively, all 20 models roughly capture the cooling SSTA associated with the CTM. However, a quantitative assessment (i.e., Taylor diagrams and the ratio of the trend between the simulations and observations) shows that only five of these 20 models (i.e., CESM1-CAM5, CMCC-CM, FGOALS-g2, IPSL-CM5B-LR, and NorESM1-M) can reproduce with useful accuracy the spatial pattern and long-term trend of the CTM. We find that these five models generally simulate the main ocean dynamical process associated with the CTM. That is, these models adequately capture the long-term cooling trend in the vertical advection of the anomalous temperature by the mean upwelling. We conclude that the performance of these CMIP5 models, with respect to simulations of the long-term cooling trend associated with the vertical advection, and the related long-term decreasing trend of the vertical gradient of the oceanic temperature anomaly, can play an important role in successful reproduction of the CTM.
ATMOSPHERIC PHYSICS
Feature analysis of stratospheric wind and temperature fields over the Antigua site by rocket data
Yang Li, Zheng Sheng, JinRui Jing
2019, 3(5): 414-424. doi: 10.26464/epp2019040
Abstract:
The wind and temperature fields at 20 to 55 km above the Antigua launch site (17°N, 61°W) were analyzed by using sounding rocket data published by the research organization on Stratosphere-Troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate (SPARC). The results showed distinct variations in the wind and temperature fields at different heights from the 1960s to the 1990s. The overall zonal wind speed showed a significant increasing trend with the year, and the overall change in meridional wind speed showed a falling trend from 1976 to 1990, whereas the temperature field showed a significant cooling trend from 1964 to 1990. The times the trends mutated varied at different levels. By taking the altitudes at 20, 35, and 50 km as representatives, we found that the zonal wind speed trend had mutated in 1988, 1986, and 1986, respectively; that the meridional wind speed trend had mutated in 1990, 1986, and 1990, respectively; and that the temperature trend had mutated separately in 1977, 1973, and 1967, respectively. Characteristics of the periodic wind and temperature field variations at different heights were also analyzed, and obvious differences were found in time scale variations across the different layers. The zonal and meridional wind fields were basically characterized as having a significant periodic variation of 5 years across the three layers, and each level was characterized as having a periodic variation of less than 5 years. Temperature field variation at the three levels was basically characterized as occurring in 10-year and 5-year cycles.
SOLID EARTH: GRAVITY
Gravity pattern in southeast margin of Tibetan Plateau and its implications to tectonics and large earthquakes
Yue Wu, Yuan Gao
2019, 3(5): 425-434. doi: 10.26464/epp2019044
Abstract:
There are many active faults in the southeast margin of Tibetan Plateau, where three large active faults zones, the Longmenshan, Xianshuihe and Anninghe, merge to form a "Y" shape. Strong crustal deformation and a complicated fault distribution accompany strong earthquake activity in this zone. In this paper, we investigate a multi-scale gravity anomaly in the southeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau using the wavelet transform; we find that the pattern of the gravity field is closely related to the fault system in the study area. Analyzing the characteristics of this Bouguer gravity anomaly at different orders indicates that the eastern Himalayan syntaxis has produced a strong eastward push during its northward movement, resulting in a shortening of the crust from west to east and a rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. The Songpan–Garzê and Sichuan–Yunnan blocks have been forced to slip and extrude southward and eastward laterally. The distributions of seven large earthquakes from 1970 to 2018 reflects the relationship between large earthquakes and characteristics of the gravity anomaly. Comparing the tectonic backgrounds of several earthquakes reveals that the large earthquakes occur usually in the high gravity anomaly gradient zone, which corresponds in general to the boundary zones of the blocks. We infer that large earthquakes occur primarily in high Bouguer gravity anomaly zones in the upper crust, while low Bouguer gravity anomalies encompass the lower crust and the uppermost mantle.
SOLID EARTH: GEOELECTROMAGNETICS
Characteristics of the coseismic geomagnetic disturbances recorded during the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake and two unexplained problems
YaLi Wang, Tao Xie, YanRu An, Chong Yue, JiuYang Wang, Chen Yu, Li Yao, Jun Lu
2019, 3(5): 435-443. doi: 10.26464/epp2019043
Abstract:
Twenty-seven FHDZ-M15 combined geomagnetic observation systems (each of which is equipped with a fluxgate magnetometer and a proton magnetometer) had been installed in the China geomagnetic network before the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, during which coseismic disturbances were recorded by 26 fluxgate magnetometer observatories. The geomagnetic disturbances have similar spatial and temporal patterns to seismic waves, except for various delays. Six proton magnetometer observatories recorded coseismic disturbances with very small amplitudes. In addition, fluxgate magnetometers registered large-amplitude disturbances that are likely to have included responses to seismic waves. However, two problems remain unresolved. First, why do these geomagnetic disturbances always arrive later than P waves? Second, why do the geomagnetic disturbances have spatial and temporal directivity similar to the main rupture direction of the earthquake? Solving these two problems may be crucial to find the mechanism responsible for generating these geomagnetic anomalies.
SOLID EARTH: SEISMOLOGY
Upper-mantle velocity structures beneath the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas inferred from triplicated P waveforms
RiSheng Chu, LuPei Zhu, ZhiFeng Ding
2019, 3(5): 444-458. doi: 10.26464/epp2019045
Abstract:
P-wave waveforms in the distance range between 12° and 30° were analyzed to investigate upper-mantle P velocity structures beneath the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding areas. The waveform data from 504 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 5.0 between 1990 and 2005 that occurred within 30° from the center of the Plateau were modelled. We divided the study area into 6 regions and modeled upper-mantle-distance P waveforms with turning points beneath each region separately. The results show that the upper-mantle P-wave velocity structures beneath India, the Himalayas, and the Lhasa Terrane are similar and contain a high-velocity lid about 250 km thick. The upper-mantle velocities down to 200 km beneath the Qiangtang Terrane, the Tarim Basin, and especially the Songpan-Garzê Terrane are lower than those in the south. The 410-km discontinuity beneath these two terranes is elevated by about 20 km. High-velocity anomalies are found in the transition zone below 500 km under the Lhasa and Qiangtang Terranes. The results suggest that the Tibetan Plateau was generated by thrusting of the Indian mantle lithosphere under the southern part of Tibet. Portions of the thickened Eurasian mantle lithosphere were delaminated; they are now sitting in the transition zone beneath southern Tibet and atop of the 410-km discontinuity underneath northern Tibet.
COMMENTS
PLANETARY SCIENCES
Chinese Academy of Sciences’ recent activities in boosting Chinese planetary science research
Su-Fang Hu, Yong Wei
2019, 3(5): 459-466. doi: 10.26464/epp2019046
Abstract:
The Chinese Academy of Sciences and its affiliated institutes and universities, responding to ever-increasing needs of China’s space explorations and exploitations in recent years, have taken a series of initiatives and conducted related activities to support Chinese planetary science research.