The occurrence of midnight Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) during the June solstice period of the ascending phase of solar cycle 24, from 2010 to 2014, was studied using data from the 47 MHz Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR) at Kototabang, Indonesia. The analysis shows that the occurrence of midnight hour EPBs was at its maximum during the low solar activity year 2010 and monotonically decreased thereafter with increasing solar activity. Details of the dependence of midnight hour EPB occurrence on solar activity were investigated using SAMI2 model simulation with a realistic input of E × B drift velocity data obtained from the CINDI-IVM onboard the C/NOFS satellite. Results obtained from term-by-term analysis of the flux tube integrated linear growth rate of RT instability indicate that the formation of a high flux tube electron content height gradient (steep vertical gradient) region at higher altitudes, due to the elevated F layer, is the key factor enhancing the growth rate of RT instability during low solar activity June solstices. Other factors are discussed in light of the relatively weak westward zonal electric field in the presence of the equatorward neutral wind and north-to-south transequatorial wind around the midnight hours of low solar activity June solstices. Also discussed are the initial seeding of RT instability by MSTIDs and how the threshold height required for EPB development varies with solar activity.
This paper briefly reviews ionospheric irregularities that occur in the E and F regions at mid-latitudes. Sporadic E (ES) is a common ionospheric irregularity phenomenon that is first noticed in the E layer. ES mainly appears during daytime in summer hemispheres, and is formed primarily from neutral wind shear in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region. Field-aligned irregularity (FAI) in the E region is also observed by Very High Frequency (VHF) radar in mid-latitude regions. FAI frequently occurs after sunset in summer hemispheres, and spectrum features of E region FAI echoes suggest that type-2 irregularity is dominant in the nighttime ionosphere. A close relationship between ES and E region FAI implies that ES may be a possible source of E region FAI in the nighttime ionosphere. Strong neutral wind shear, steep ES plasma density gradient, and a polarized electric field are the significant factors affecting the formation of E region FAI. At mid-latitudes, joint observational experiments including ionosonde, VHF radar, Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, and all-sky optical images have revealed strong connections across different scales of ionospheric irregularities in the nighttime F region, such as spread F (SF), medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTID), and F region FAI. Observations suggest that different scales of ionospheric irregularities are generally attributed to the Perkins instability and subsequently excited gradient drift instability. Nighttime MSTID can further evolve into small-scale structures through a nonlinear cascade process when a steep plasma density gradient exists at the bottom of the F region. In addition, the effect of ionospheric electrodynamic coupling processes, including ionospheric E-F coupling and inter-hemispheric coupling on the generation of ionospheric irregularities, becomes more prominent due to the significant dip angle and equipotentiality of magnetic field lines in the mid-latitude ionosphere. Polarized electric fields can map to different ionospheric regions and excite plasma instabilities which form ionospheric irregularities. Nevertheless, the mapping efficiency of a polarized electric field depends on the ionospheric background and spatial scale of the field.
Connecting earthquake nucleation in basement rock to fluid injection in basal, sedimentary reservoirs, depends heavily on choices related to the poroelastic properties of the fluid-rock system, thermo-chemical effects notwithstanding. Direct constraints on these parameters outside of laboratory settings are rare, and it is commonly assumed that the rock layers are isotropic. With the Arbuckle wastewater disposal reservoir in Osage County, Oklahoma, high-frequency formation pressure changes and collocated broadband ground velocities measured during the passing of large teleseismic waves show a poroelastic response of the reservoir that is both azimuthally variable and anisotropic; this includes evidence of static shifts in pressure that presumably relate to changes in local permeability. The azimuthal dependence in both the static response and shear coupling appears related to tectonic stress and strain indicators such as the orientations of the maximum horizontal stress and faults and fractures. Using dynamic strains from a nearby borehole strainmeter, we show that the ratio of shear to volumetric strain coupling is
With the development of unconventional shale gas in the southern Sichuan Basin, seismicity in the region has increased significantly in recent years. Though the existing sparse regional seismic stations can capture most earthquakes with
Previous studies indicate that, in the Jovian magnetosphere, the long-term trend of the radial profile of relativistic electron intensities is primarily shaped by slow radial diffusion. However, measurements by the Galileo spacecraft reveal the existence of transient increases in MeV electron intensities well above the ambient distribution. It is unclear how common such transient enhancements are, and to which dynamic processes in Jupiter's magnetosphere their occurrence is linked. We investigate the radial distributions of
Responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) density to geomagnetic secular variation are investigated using the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model-eXtended (WACCM-X). Our ensemble simulations show that CO2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs) increase at high latitudes and decrease at mid and low latitudes by several ppmv in response to a 50% weakening of the geomagnetic field. Statistically significant changes in CO2 are mainly found above ~90 km altitude and primarily redetermine the energy budget at ~100–110 km. Our analysis of transformed Eulerian mean (TEM) circulation found that CO2 change is caused by enhanced upwelling at high latitudes and downwelling at mid and low latitudes as a result of increased Joule heating. We further analyzed the atmospheric CO2 response to realistic geomagnetic weakening between 1978 and 2013, and found increasing (decreasing) CO2 VMRs at high latitudes (mid and low latitudes) accordingly. For the first time, our simulation results demonstrate that the impact of geomagnetic variation on atmospheric CO2 distribution is noticeable on a time scale of decades.
The ion-to-electron temperature ratio is a good indicator of the processes involved in solar wind plasma entering and being transported inside Earth’s plasma sheet. In this study, we have demonstrated that patchy magnetic reconnection has the potential to preserve the ion-to-electron temperature ratio under certain conditions. If the charged particles are non-adiabatically accelerated no more than once in a single reconnection, the temperature ratio would be preserved; on the other hand, this ratio would not be preserved if they are accelerated multiple times. Consequently, under a northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) condition, the reconnection in the nonlinear phase of the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability is the dominant process for solar-originated plasma entering the Earth’s magnetosphere, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio is preserved inside the plasma sheet. When the direction of the IMF is southward, the reflection of electrons from the magnetic mirror point, and subsequent multiple non-adiabatic accelerations at the reconnection site, are the primary reasons for the observed low ion-to-electron temperature ratio close to the Earth at midnight. While reconnections that occur in the night-side far tail might preserve the ratio, turbulence on the boundaries of the bursty bulk flows (BBFs) could change the ratio in the far tail through the violation of the frozen-in condition of the ions. The plateau in the contour of the calculated ion-to-electron temperature ratio in the down tail distance between 40 and 60 Earth radii may explain the strong correlation between the ion and electron temperatures in the outer central plasma sheet, which has not been clearly understood till date.
On August 8, 2017, a magnitude 7.0 earthquake occurred in Jiuzhaigou County, Sichuan Province, China. The deep seismogenic environment and potential seismic risk in the eastern margin of Tibetan Plateau have once again attracted the close attention of seismologists and scholars at home and abroad. The post-earthquake scientific investigation could not identify noticeable surface rupture zones in the affected area; the complex tectonic background and the reason(s) for the frequent seismicity in the Jiuzhaigou earthquake region are unclear. In order to reveal the characteristics of the deep medium and the seismogenic environment of the M7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake region, and to interpret the tectonic background and genesis of the seismicity comprehensively, in this paper, we have reviewed all available observation data recorded by the regional digital seismic networks and large-scale, dense mobile seismic array (China Array) for the northern section of the North–South Seismic Belt around Jiuzhaigou earthquake region. Using double-difference seismic tomography method to invert the three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure characteristics of the upper crust around the Jiuzhaigou earthquake region, we have analyzed and discussed such scientific questions as the relationship between the velocity structure characteristics and seismicity in the Jiuzhaigou earthquake region, its deep tectonic environment, and the ongoing seismic risk in this region. We report that: the P-wave velocity structure of the upper crust around the Jiuzhaigoug earthquake region exhibits obvious lateral inhomogeneity; the distribution characteristics of the shallow P-wave velocity structure are closely related to surface geological structure and formation lithology; the M7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake sequence is closely related to the velocity structure of the upper crust; the mainshock of the M7.0 earthquake occurred in the upper crust; the inhomogeneous variation of the velocity structure of the Jiuzhaigou earthquake area and its surrounding medium appears to be the deep structural factor controlling the spatial distribution of the mainshock and its sequence. The 3D P-wave velocity structure also suggests that the crustal low-velocity layer of northeastern SGB (Songpan–Garzê Block) stretches into MSM (Minshan Mountain), and migrates to the northeast, but the tendency to emerge as a shallow layer is impeded by the high-velocity zone of Nanping Nappe tectonics and the Bikou Block. Our results reveal an uneven distribution of high- and low-velocity structures around the Tazang segment of the East Kunlun fault zone. Given that the rupture caused by the Jiuzhaigou earthquake has enhanced the stress fields at both ends of the seismogenic fault, it is very important to stay vigilant to possible seismic hazards in the large seismic gap at the Maqu–Maqên segment of the East Kunlun fault zone.