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ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

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Response of photoelectron peaks in the Martian ionosphere to solar EUV/X-ray irradiance
XiaoShu Wu, Jun Cui, YuTian Cao, WeiQin Sun, Qiong Luo, BinBin Ni
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020035
[Abstract](192) [FullText HTML](33) [PDF 6644KB](2)
An important population of the dayside Martian ionosphere are photoelectrons that are produced by solar Extreme Ultraviolet and X-ray ionization of atmospheric neutrals. A typical photoelectron energy spectrum is characterized by a distinctive peak near 27 eV related to the strong solar HeII emission line at 30.4 nm, and an additional peak near 500 eV related to O Auger ionization. In this study, the extensive measurements made by the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer on board the recent Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft are analyzed and found to verify the scenario that Martian ionosphere photoelectrons are driven by solar radiation. We report that the photoelectron intensities at the centers of both peaks increase steadily with increasing solar ionizing flux below 90 nm and that the observed solar cycle variation is substantially more prominent near the O Auger peak than near the HeII peak. The latter observation is clearly driven by a larger variability in solar irradiance at shorter wavelengths. When the solar ionizing flux increases from 1 mW·m-2 to 2.5 mW·m-2, the photoelectron intensity increases by a factor of 3.2 at the HeII peak and by a much larger factor of 10.5 at the O Auger peak, both within the optically thin regions of the Martian atmosphere.
Inertial gravity waves observed by a Doppler wind LiDAR and their possible sources
XiangHui Xue, DongSong Sun, HaiYun Xia, XianKang Dou
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020039
[Abstract](122) [FullText HTML](21) [PDF 4554KB](4)
In this paper, we use wind observations by a Doppler wind LiDAR near Delingha (37.4°N, 97.4°E), Qinghai, Northwestern China to study the characteristics of inertial gravity waves in the stratosphere. We focus on 10–12 December 2013, a particularly interesting case study. Most of the time, the inertial gravity waves extracted from the LiDAR measurements were stationary with vertical wavelengths of about 9–11 km and horizontal wavelengths of about 800–1000 km. However, for parts of the observational period in this case study, a hodograph analysis indicates that different inertial gravity wave propagation features were present at lower and upper altitudes. In the middle and upper stratosphere (~30–50 km), the waves propagated downward, especially during a period of stronger winds, and to the northwest–southeast. In the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere (~10–20 km), however, waves with upward propagation and northeast–southwest orientation were dominant. By taking into account reanalysis data and satellite observations, we have confirmed the presence of different wave patterns in the lower and upper stratosphere during this part of the observational period. The combined data sets suggest that the different wave patterns at lower and upper height levels are likely to have been associated with the presence of lower and upper stratospheric jet streams.
A method of estimating the Martian neutral atmospheric density at 130 km, and comparison of its results with Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey aerobraking observations based on the Mars Climate Database outputs
JunFeng Qin, Hong Zou, YuGuang Ye, YongQiang Hao, JinSong Wang, Erling Nielsen
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020038
[Abstract](73) [FullText HTML](19) [PDF 1644KB](0)
Profiles of the Martian dayside ionosphere can be used to derive the neutral atmospheric densities at 130 km, which can also be obtained from the Mars Climate Database (MCD) and spacecraft aerobraking observations. In this research, we explain the method used to calculate neutral densities at 130 km via ionosphere observations and three long-period 130-km neutral density data sets at northern high latitudes (latitudes > 60°) acquired through ionospheric data measured by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Radio Occultation Experiment. The calculated 130-km neutral density data, along with 130-km density data from the aerobraking observations of the MGS and Mars Odyssey (ODY) in the northern high latitudes, were compared with MCD outputs at the same latitude, longitude, altitude, solar latitude, and local time. The 130-km density data derived from both the ionospheric profiles and aerobraking observations were found to show seasonal variations similar to those in the MCD data. With a negative shift of about 2 × 1010 cm−3, the corrected 130-km neutral densities derived from MCD v4.3 were consistent with those obtained from the two different observations. This result means that (1) the method used to derive the 130-km neutral densities with ionospheric profiles was effective, (2) the MCD v4.3 data sets generally overestimated the 130-km neutral densities at high latitudes, and (3) the neutral density observations from the MGS Radio Science Experiment could be used to calibrate a new atmospheric model of Mars.
A local Martian crustal field model: Targeting the candidate landing site of the 2020 Chinese Mars Rover
XinZhou Li, ZhaoJin Rong, JiaWei Gao, Yong Wei, Zhen Shi, Tao Yu, WeiXing Wan
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020045
[Abstract](89) [FullText HTML](18) [PDF 4135KB](7)
Unlike Earth, Mars lacks a global dipolar magnetic field but is dominated by patches of a remnant crustal magnetic field. In 2021, the Chinese Mars Rover will land on the surface of Mars and measure the surface magnetic field along a moving path within the possible landing region of 20°W–50°W, 20°N–30°N. One scientific target of the Rover is to monitor the variation in surface remnant magnetic fields and reveal the source of the ionospheric current. An accurate local crustal field model is thus considered necessary as a field reference. Here we establish a local crust field model for the candidate landing site based on the joint magnetic field data set from Mars Global Explorer (MGS) and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) data combined. The model is composed of 1,296 dipoles, which are set on three layers but at different buried depths. The application of the dipole model to the joint data set allowed us to calculate the optimal parameters of their dipoles. The calculated results demonstrate that our model has less fitting error than two other state-of-the art global crustal field models, which would indicate a more reasonable assessment of the surface crustal field from our model.
Diurnal variability of the planetary boundary layer height estimated from radiosonde data
Jie Gu, YeHui Zhang, Na Yang, Rui Wang
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020042
[Abstract](24) [FullText HTML](4) [PDF 2472KB](0)
Diurnal variations in the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) at different latitudes over different surface characteristics are described, based on 45 years (1973−2017) of radiosonde observations. The PBLH is determined from the radiosonde data by the bulk Richardson number (BRN) method and verified by the parcel method and the potential temperature gradient method. In general, the BRN method is able to represent the height of the convective boundary layer (BL) and neutral residual layer cases but has relatively large uncertainty in the stable BL cases. The diurnal cycle of the PBLH over land is quite different from the cycle over ocean, as are their seasonal variations. For stations over land, the PBLH shows an apparent diurnal cycle, with a distinct maximum around 15:00 LT, and seasonal variation, with higher values in summer. Compared with the PBLH over land, over oceans the PBLH diurnal cycles are quite mild, the PBLHs are much lower, and the seasonal changes are less pronounced. The seasonal variations in the median PBLH diurnal cycle are positively correlated with the near-surface temperature and negatively correlated with the near-surface relative humidity. Finally, although at most latitudes the daytime PBLH exhibits, over these 45 years, a statistically significant increasing trend at most hours between 12:00 LT and 18:00 LT over both land and ocean, there is no significant trend over either land or ocean in the nighttime PBLH for almost all the studied latitudes.
Comparison of stratospheric evolution during the major sudden stratospheric warming events in 2018 and 2019
Zheng Ma, Yun Gong, ShaoDong Zhang, JiaHui Luo, QiHou Zhou, ChunMing Huang, KaiMing Huang
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020044
[Abstract](28) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 605KB](1)
Using Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) data in the northern hemisphere at the 10 hPa level, we compared the stratospheric evolution of temperature and geopotential height during two major sudden stratosphere warming events (SSWs) that occurred in the Arctic winter of 2018 and 2019. In the prewarming period, poleward temperature-enhanced regions were mainly located around 120°E with a displaced vortex and around 120°E and 60°W with splitting vortices. The evolution of geopotential height indicated that these temperature-enhanced regions were both on the western side of high-latitude anticyclones. In the postwarming period, the polar vortex turned from splitting to displacement in the 2018 SSW but from displacement to splitting in the 2019 SSW. Both transitions were observed over the Atlantic region, which may have been caused by anticyclones moving through the polar region. Our findings revealed that the evolution of the anticyclone is important during SSWs and is closely related to temperature-enhanced regions in the prewarming periods and to transitions of the polar vortices in postwarming periods.
Global static stability and its relation to gravity waves in the middle atmosphere
Xiao Liu, JiYao Xu, Jia Yue
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020047
[Abstract](35) [FullText HTML](17) [PDF 4322KB](1)
The global atmospheric static stability (N2) in the middle atmosphere and its relation to gravity waves (GWs) were investigated by using the temperature profiles measured by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument from 2002 to 2018. At low latitudes, a layer with enhanced N2 occurs at an altitude of ~20 km and exhibits annual oscillations caused by tropopause inversion layers. Above an altitude of ~70 km, enhanced N2 exhibits semiannual oscillations at low latitudes caused by the mesosphere inversion layers and annual oscillations at high latitudes resulting from the downward shift of the summer mesopause. The correlation coefficients between N2 and GW amplitudes can be larger than 0.8 at latitudes poleward of ~40°N/S. This observation provides factual evidence that a large N2 supports large-amplitude GWs and indicates that N2 plays a dominant role in maintaining GWs at least at high latitudes of the middle atmosphere. This evidence also partially explains the previous results regarding the phase changes of annual oscillations of GWs at high latitudes.
Wavenumber-4 spectral component extracted from TIMED/SABER observations
Xing Li, WeiXing Wan, JinBin Cao, ZhiPeng Ren
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020040
[Abstract](25) [FullText HTML](5) [PDF 3719KB](1)
The wavenumber spectral components WN4 at the mesosphere and low thermosphere (MLT) altitudes (70–10 km) and in the latitude range between ±45° are obtained from temperature data (T) observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instruments on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)’s Thermosphere–Ionosphere–Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) spacecraft during the 11-year solar period from 2002 to 2012. We analyze in detail these spectral components WNk and obtain the main properties of their vertical profiles and global structures. We report that all of the wavenumber spectral components WNk occur mainly around 100 km altitude, and that the most prominent component is the wavenumber spectral component WN4 structure. Comparing these long duration temperature data with results of previous investigations, we have found that the yearly variation of spectral component WN4 is similar to that of the eastward propagating non-migrating diurnal tide with zonal wavenumber 3 (DE3) at the low latitudes, and to that of the semi-diurnal tide with zonal wavenumber 2 (SE2) at the mid-latitudes: the amplitudes of the A4 are larger during boreal summer and autumn at the low-latitudes; at the mid-latitudes the amplitudes have a weak peak in March. In addition, the amplitudes of component WN4 undergo a remarkable short period variation: significant day-to-day variation of the spectral amplitudes A4 occurs primarily in July and September at the low-latitudes. In summary, we conclude that the non-migrating tides DE3 and SE2 are likely to be the origins, at the low-latitudes and the mid-latitudes in the MLT region, respectively, of the observed wavenumber spectral component WN4.
Influence of annual atmospheric tide asymmetry on annual anomalies of the ionospheric mean state
ZhiPeng Ren, WeiXing Wan, JianGang Xiong, Xing Li
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020041
[Abstract](80) [FullText HTML](22) [PDF 544KB](5)
Through respectively adding June tide and December tide at the low boundary of the GCITEM-IGGCAS model (Global Coupled Ionosphere–Thermosphere–Electrodynamics Model, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences), we simulate the influence of atmospheric tide on the annual anomalies of the zonal mean state of the ionospheric electron density, and report that the tidal influence varies with latitude, altitude, and solar activity level. Compared with the density driven by the December tide, the June tide mainly increases lower ionospheric electron densities (below roughly the height of 200 km), and decreases electron densities in the higher ionosphere (above the height of 200 km). In the low-latitude ionosphere, tides affect the equatorial ionization anomaly structure (EIA) in the relative difference of electron density, which suggests that tides affect the equatorial vertical E×B plasma drifts. Although the tide-driven annual anomalies do not vary significantly with the solar flux level in the lower ionosphere, in the higher ionosphere the annual anomalies generally decrease with solar activity.
Bidirectional electron conic observations for photoelectrons in the Martian ionosphere
YuTian Cao, Jun Cui, BinBin Ni, XiaoShu Wu, Qiong Luo, ZhaoGuo He
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020037
[Abstract](155) [FullText HTML](18) [PDF 307KB](3)
Electron pitch angle distributions similar to bidirectional electron conics (BECs) have been reported at Mars in previous studies based on analyses of Mars Global Surveyor measurements. BEC distribution, also termed “butterfly” distribution, presents a local minimum flux at 90° and a maximum flux before reaching the local loss cone. Previous studies have focused on 115 eV electrons that were produced mainly via solar wind electron impact ionization. Here using Solar Wind Electron Analyzer measurements made onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution spacecraft, we identify 513 BEC events for 19–55 eV photoelectrons that were generated via photoionization only. Therefore, we are investigating electrons observed in regions well away from their source regions, to be distinguished from 115 eV electrons observed and produced in the same regions. We investigate the spatial distribution of the 19–55 eV BECs, revealing that they are more likely observed on the nightside as well as near strong crustal magnetic anomalies. We propose that the 19–55 eV photoelectron BECs are formed due to day-to-night transport and the magnetic mirror effect of photoelectrons moving along cross-terminator closed magnetic field lines.
Reponses of middle atmospheric circulation to the 2009 major sudden stratospheric warming
ShengYang Gu, Xin Hou, JiaHui Qi, KeMin TengChen, XianKang Dou
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020046
[Abstract](69) [FullText HTML](16) [PDF 785KB](1)
In this research, the roles of gravity waves and planetary waves in the change to middle atmospheric residual circulation during a sudden stratospheric warming period are differentiated and depicted separately by adopting the downward control principle. Our analysis shows clear anomalous poleward residual circulation patterns from the equator to high latitudes in the lower winter stratosphere. At the same time, upward mean flows are identified at high latitudes of the winter upper stratosphere and mesosphere, which turn equatorward in the mesosphere and reach as far as the tropical region, and consequently the extratropical region in the summer hemisphere. The downward control principle shows that anomalous mesospheric residual circulation patterns, including interhemispheric coupling, are solely caused by the change in gravity wave forcing resulting from the reversal of the winter stratospheric zonal wind. Nevertheless, both planetary waves and gravity waves are important to variations in the winter stratospheric circulation, but with opposite effects.
Observation of CO2++ dication in the dayside Martian upper atmosphere
Hao Gu, Jun Cui, DanDan Niu, LongKang Dai, JianPing Huang, XiaoShu Wu, YongQiang Hao, Yong Wei
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020036
[Abstract](222) [FullText HTML](27) [PDF 752KB](2)
Doubly charged positive ions (dications) are an important component of planetary ionospheres because of the large energy required for their formation. Observations of these ions are exceptionally difficult due to their low abundances; until now, only atomic dications have been detected. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measurements made on board the recent Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission provide the first opportunity for decisive detection of molecular dications, CO2++ in this case, in a planetary upper atmosphere. The NGIMS data reveal a dayside averaged CO2++ distribution declining steadily from 5.6 cm−3 at 160 km to below 1 cm−3 above 200 km. The dominant CO2++ production mechanisms are double photoionization of CO2 below 190 km and single photoionization of CO2+ at higher altitudes; CO2++ destruction is dominated by natural dissociation, but reactions with atmospheric CO2 and O become important below 160 km. Simplified photochemical model calculations are carried out and reasonably reproduce the data at low altitudes within a factor of 2 but underestimate the data at high altitudes by a factor of 4. Finally, we report a much stronger solar control of the CO2++ density than of the CO2+ density .
Analysis of the role of branching angle in the dynamic rupture process on a 3-D branching fault system
JingXing Fang, Feng Qian, HaiMing Zhang
Recently Published , doi: 10.26464/epp2020043
[Abstract](66) [FullText HTML](15) [PDF 1088KB](2)
The fault branching phenomenon, which may heavily influence the patterns of rupture propagation in fault systems, is one of the geometric complexities of fault systems that is widely observed in nature. In this study, we investigate the effect of the branching angle on the rupture inclination and the interaction between branch planes in two-fork branching fault systems by numerical simulation and theoretical analysis based on Mohr’s circle. A friction law dependent on normal stress is used, and special attention is paid to studying how ruptures on the upper and lower branch planes affect the stress and rupture on each other separately. The results show that the two branch planes affect each other in different patterns and that the intensity of the effect changes with the branching angle. The rupture of the lower branch plane has a negative effect on the rupture of the upper branch plane in the case of a small branching angle but has almost no negative effect in the case of a large branching angle. The rupture of the upper branch plane, however, suppresses the rupture of the lower branch plane regardless of whether the branching angle is large or small.


On the radar frequency dependence of Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes
Shucan Ge, HaiLong Li, Lin Meng, MaoYan Wang, Tong XU, Safi Ullah, Abdur Rauf and Abdel Hannachid
Accepted Articles , doi: 10.26464/epp2020061
[Abstract](15) [PDF](0)
Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) are very strong radar echoes in polar mesopause at local summer. This paper presents the frequency dependence of volume reflectivity and the effect of energetic particle precipitation on modulated PMSE, by using the PMSE observations carried out simultaneously with European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) Very high frequency (VHF) and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) radars on 12 July 2007. Based on experimental observations, the PMSE occurrence rate at VHF is much higher than that of UHF, and the altitude of the PMSE maximum observed at VHF is higher than that at UHF. There are overlapping regions between the high-energetic particle precipitation and the PMSE observed by the VHF radar. Also, the high frequency (HF) heating has a very limited impact on PMSE when the UHF electron density is enhanced due to particle precipitation. At the same time, an updated qualitative method is used to study the relation between volume reflectivity and frequency. It is found that the volume reflectivity is inversely proportional to the fourth power of radar frequency. The theoretical and experimental results provided definitive data foundation for further analysis and investigation of the physical mechanism of PMSE.
The diurnal transport of atmospheric water vapor during major dust storms on Mars based on the Mars Climate Database, version 5.3
Jing Li, ZhaoPeng Wu, Tao Li, Xi Zhang, and Jun Cui
Accepted Articles , doi: 10.26464/epp2020062
[Abstract](12) [PDF](0)
In recent studies of the Martian atmosphere, strong diurnal variation in the dust was discovered in the southern hemisphere during major dust storms, which provides strong evidence that the commonly recognized meridional transport process is driven by thermal tides. This process, when coupled with deep convection, could be an important part of the short-term atmospheric dynamics of water escape. However, the potential of this process to alter the horizontal distribution of moist air has not been systematically investigated. In this work, we conducted pre-research on the horizontal transport of water vapor associated with the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) at 50 Pa in the upper troposphere during major dust storms based on the Mars Climate Database (MCD) 5.3, a state-of-the-art database for Martian atmospheric research that has been validated as simulating the relevant short-period atmospheric dynamics well. We found westward-propagating diurnal patterns in the global water vapor front during nearly all the major dust storms from Martian years (MYs) 24 to 32. Statistical and correlation analyses showed that the diurnal transport of water vapor during global and A-season regional dust storms is dominated by the DW1. The effect of the tidal transport of water vapor varies with the types of dust storms in different seasons. During regional dust storms, the tidal transport induces only limited diurnal motion of the water vapor. However, the horizontal tidal wind tends to increase the abundance of daytime water vapor at mid- to low latitudes during the MY 28 southern summer global dust storm while decreasing it during the MY 25 southern spring global dust storm. The tidal transport process during these two global dust storms can induce opposite effects on water escape.
On the loss mechanisms of radiation belt electron dropouts during the 12 September 2014 geomagnetic storm
Xin Ma, Zheng Xiang, BinBin Ni, Song Fu, Xing Cao, Man Hua, DeYu Guo, YingJie Guo, XuDong Gu, ZeYuan Liu, and Qi Zhu
Accepted Articles , doi: 10.26464/epp2020060
[Abstract](16) [PDF](0)
Radiation belt electron dropouts mean electron flux decay to the background level during geomagnetic storms, which is commonly attributed to the effects of wave induced pitch angle scattering and magnetopause shadowing. To investigate the loss mechanisms of radiation belt electron dropouts triggered by a solar wind dynamic pressure pulse event on 12 September 2014, we comprehensively analyze the particle and wave measurements from Van Allen Probes. The dropout event is divided into three periods: before the storm, the storm initial phase, and the storm main phase. The electron pitch angle distributions and electron flux dropouts during the initial and main phases of this storm are investigated, and the evolution of the radial profile of electron phase space density (PSD) and (μ, K) dependence of electron PSD dropouts (where μ, K and L* are the three adiabatic invariants) are analyzed. The energy independent decay of electrons at L > 4.5 was accompanied by the butterfly PADs, suggesting that the magnetopause shadowing process can be the major loss mechanism during the storm initial phase at L > 4.5. The features of electron dropouts and 90°-peaked PADs were only observed for > 1 MeV electrons at L < 4, indicating that the wave induced scattering effect can dominate the electron loss processes at lower L-shell during the storm main phase. Evaluations of the (μ, K) dependence of electron PSD drops and calculations of the minimum electron resonant energies of H+-band EMIC waves support the scenario that the observed PSD drop peaks around L* = 3.9 can be mainly caused by scattering of EMIC waves, while the drop peaks around L* = 4.6 can result from a combination of EMIC wave scattering and outward radial diffusion.

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Recent ionospheric investigations in China (2018–2019)
LiBo Liu, WeiXing Wan
2020, 4(3): 179 -205   doi: 10.26464/epp2020028
Since the release of the 2018 National Report of China on ionospheric research ( Liu LB and Wan WX, 2018) to the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), scientists from Mainland China have made many new fruitful investigations of various ionospheric-related issues. In this update report, we briefly introduce more than 130 recent reports (2018–2019). The current report covers the following topics: ionospheric space weather, ionospheric structures and climatology, ionospheric dynamics and couplings, ionospheric irregularity and scintillation, modeling and data assimilation, and radio wave propagation in the ionosphere and sounding techniques.
Impact of surface Albedo on Martian photochemistry
Deepak Singh
2020, 4(3): 206 -211   doi: 10.26464/epp2020025
Solar energy is the primary driving force behind a planet’s climate system, and surface albedo plays a key role in determining the energy budget of the planet. Coupling the Snow, Ice, and Aerosol Radiation (SNICAR) with the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD) Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) to create a new coupled model leads to an approximately 4% drop in the net CO2 ice deposition on Mars. Newly simulated surface albedo affects the concentration of gaseous species in the Martian atmosphere (condensation-sublimation cycle). The new set-up also impacts the solar energy available in the atmosphere. These two effects together lead to subsequent and significant changes in other chemical species in the Martian atmosphere. Compared with results of the MGCM model alone, in the new coupled model CO2 (gas) and O3 show a drop of about 1.17% and 8.59% in their respective concentrations, while H2O (vapor) and CO show an increase of about 13.63% and 0.56% in their respective concentrations. Among trace species, OH shows a maximum increase of about 29.44%, while the maximum drop of 11.5% is observed in the O concentration. Photochemically neutral species such as Ar and N2 remain unaffected by the albedo changes.
Fine debris flows formed by the Orientale basin
YuZhen Cai, ZhiYong Xiao, ChunYu Ding, Jun Cui
2020, 4(3): 212 -222   doi: 10.26464/epp2020027
The prototype for investigations of formation mechanisms and related geological effects of large impact basins on planetary bodies has been the Orientale basin on the Moon. Its widespread secondaries, light plains, and near-rim melt flows have been well mapped in previous studies. Flow features are also widely associated with secondaries on planetary bodies, but their physical properties are not well constrained. The nature of flow features associated with large impact basins are critically important to understand the emplacement process of basin ejecta, which is one of the most fundamental processes in shaping the shallow crusts of planetary bodies. Here we use multisource remote sensing data to constrain the physical properties of flow features formed by the secondaries of the Orientale basin. The results suggest that such flows are dominated by centimeter-scale fine debris fines; larger boulders are not abundant. The shattering of target materials during the excavation of the Orientale basin, landing impact of ejecta that formed the secondaries, and grain comminution within the flows have substantially reduced particle sizes, forming the fine flows. The discovery of global-wide fine debris flows formed by large impact basins has profound implications to the interpretation of both previously-returned samples and remote sensing data.
The effect of cavity density on the formation of electrostatic shock in the lunar wake: 1-D hybrid simulation
Yuan Jin, Ye Pang
2020, 4(3): 223 -230   doi: 10.26464/epp2020013
One-dimensional hybrid simulations are carried out to study the plasma refilling process in the lunar wake. Previous theoretical and simulation studies have shown that ion-ion acoustic (ⅡA) instability can be initiated and electrostatic shock can be formed under the condition \begin{document}${{T_{\rm e}}\gg {T_{\rm i}}}$\end{document}. We find that the time evolution of ⅡA instability and the formation of electrostatic shock strongly depend on initial cavity density. The initial position of the electrostatic shock is dependent on the ratio between initial cavity density and background solar wind density, i.e., the farther away the initial position, the lower is the ratio. When the initial cavity density is low enough, the density and electric field profile across the wake become much complex. Meanwhile, the back-to-back electrostatic shock is unstable in the case of lower cavity densities; at the late evolution stage, a new shock-like structure can be formed at the central region of the lunar wake.
Prediction of the thermospheric and ionospheric responses to the 21 June 2020 annular solar eclipse
Tong Dang, JiuHou Lei, WenBin Wang, MaoDong Yan, DeXin Ren, FuQing Huang
2020, 4(3): 231 -237   doi: 10.26464/epp2020032
On 21 June 2020, an annular solar eclipse will traverse the low latitudes from Africa to Southeast Asia. The highest latitude of the maximum eclipse obscuration is approximately 30°. This low-latitude solar eclipse provides a unique and unprecedented opportunity to explore the impact of the eclipse on the low-latitude ionosphere–thermosphere (I–T) system, especially in the equatorial ionization anomaly region. In this study, we describe a quantitative prediction of the impact of this upcoming solar eclipse on the I–T system by using Thermosphere–Ionosphere–Electrodynamics General Circulation Model simulations. A prominent total electron content (TEC) enhancement of around 2 TEC units occurs in the equatorial ionization anomaly region even when this region is still in the shadow of the eclipse. This TEC enhancement lasts for nearly 4.5 hours, long after the solar eclipse has ended. Further model control simulations indicate that the TEC increase is mainly caused by the eclipse-induced transequatorial plasma transport associated with northward neutral wind perturbations, which result from eclipse-induced pressure gradient changes. The results illustrate that the effect of the solar eclipse on the I–T system is not transient and linear but should be considered a dynamically and energetically coupled system.
A detailed investigation of low latitude tweek atmospherics observed by the WHU ELF/VLF receiver: 2. Occurrence features and associated ionospheric parameters
Juan Yi, XuDong Gu, Wen Cheng, XinYue Tang, Long Chen, BinBin Ni, RuoXian Zhou, ZhengYu Zhao, Qi Wang, LiQing Zhou
2020, 4(3): 238 -245   doi: 10.26464/epp2020023
As a companion paper to Zhou RX et al. (2020), this study describes application of the automatic detection and analysis module to identify all the tweek atmospherics detectible in the WHU ELF/VLF receiver data collected at Suizhou station during the period of 3 February through 29 February 2016. Detailed analysis of the identified low-latitude tweek events reveals that the occurrence rate varies considerably — from 800 to 6000 tweeks per day, and exhibits a strong diurnal and local time dependence, the peak occurring before local midnight. The diurnal variation of identified tweeks was similar to that of the lightning data obtained by the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN).. Estimates of the propagation distance and ionospheric reflection height of tweek atmospherics suggest that the majority (~92%) of the low latitude tweeks originate from the lightning activity within a radius of 4000 km and that they are very likely to reflect from the lower ionospheric D-region at the height range of 75–85 km. At these lower ionospheric reflection altitudes, ~74% of the corresponding electron densities from the tweek spectral measurements are within 24.5–27.5 cm-3. The daily variation of estimated D-region electron densities in the considered period (February 2016) also exhibits a small overall increasing trend from early to later in the month.
An empirical model of the global distribution of plasmaspheric hiss based on Van Allen Probes EMFISIS measurements
JingZhi Wang, Qi Zhu, XuDong Gu, Song Fu, JianGuang Guo, XiaoXin Zhang, Juan Yi, YingJie Guo, BinBin Ni, Zheng Xiang
2020, 4(3): 246 -265   doi: 10.26464/epp2020034
Using wave measurements from the EMFISIS instrument onboard Van Allen Probes, we investigate statistically the spatial distributions of the intensity of plasmaspheric hiss waves. To reproduce these empirical results, we establish a fitting model that is a third-order polynomial function of L-shell, magnetic local time (MLT), magnetic latitude (MLAT), and AE*. Quantitative comparisons indicate that the model’s fitting functions can reflect favorably the major empirical features of the global distribution of hiss wave intensity, including substorm dependence and the MLT asymmetry. Our results therefore provide a useful analytic model that can be readily employed in future simulations of global radiation belt electron dynamics under the impact of plasmaspheric hiss waves in geospace.
A normalized statistical study of Earth’s cusp region based on nine-years of Cluster measurements
Chao Xiao, WenLong Liu, DianJun Zhang, Zhao Zhang
2020, 4(3): 266 -273   doi: 10.26464/epp2020031
Nine years (2001–2009) of data from the Cluster spacecraft are analyzed in this study of the Earth’s mid- and high-altitude (2–9RE) cusp. Properties of the cusp region, and its location and size in the Solar Magnetic coordinate system, are studied statistically. The survey shows that (1) the relationships between X and Z are nearly linear for the poleward, equatorward boundaries and the center of the cusp; (2) the relationship between cusp width in the X direction and Z can be expressed by a quadratic function; (3) the cusp region is almost dawn-dusk symmetric for the cusp width in the X direction. Based on topology information, a new normalized statistical methodology is developed to organize the measurements of cusp crossings to obtain distributions of magnetic field and plasma parameters in the XZ plane. The statistical results show that (1) Bx is mostly negative and Bz is always negative; (2) proton velocity is found to be positive for Vx and Vz at low altitudes, while Vx and Vz are negative on the equator side and negative Vx and positive Vz on the pole side at high altitudes; (3) proton density is higher on the equator side than on the pole side. Results reported here will be useful in suggesting directions for future cusp research.
Characteristics of the quasi-16-day wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region as revealed by meteor radar, Aura satellite, and MERRA2 reanalysis data from 2008 to 2017
Yun Gong, Zheng Ma, Chun Li, XieDong Lv, ShaoDong Zhang, QiHou Zhou, ChunMing Huang, KaiMing Huang, You Yu, GuoZhu Li
2020, 4(3): 274 -284   doi: 10.26464/epp2020033
This study presents an analysis of the quasi-16-day wave (Q16DW) at three stations in the middle latitudes by using a meteor radar chain in conjunction with Aura Microwave Limb Sounder temperature data and MERRA2 (Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2) reanalysis data from 2008 to 2017. The radar chain consists of three meteor radar stations located at Mohe (MH, 53.5°N, 122.3°E), Beijing (BJ, 40.3°N, 116.2°E), and Wuhan (WH, 30.5°N, 114.6°E). The Q16DW wave exhibits similar seasonal variation in the neutral wind and temperature, and the Q16DW amplitude is generally strong during winter and weak around summer. The Q16DW at BJ was found to have secondary enhancement around September in the zonal wind, which is rarely reported at similar latitudes. The latitudinal variations of the Q16DW in the neutral wind and temperature are quite different. The Q16DW at BJ is the most prominent in both neutral wind components among the three stations and the Q16DW amplitudes at MH and WH are comparable, whereas the wave amplitude in temperature decreases with decreasing latitude. The quasi-geostrophic refractive index squared at the three stations in the period from 2008 to 2017 was revealed. The results indicate that the Q16DW in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) at MH has a limited contribution from the lower atmosphere. Around March and October, the Q16DW in the troposphere at BJ can propagate upward into the MLT region, whereas at WH, the contribution to the Q16DW in the MLT region is largely from the mesosphere.
Quasi-6-day waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region and their possible coupling with the QBO and solar 27-day rotation
JianYuan Wang, Wen Yi, TingDi Chen, XiangHui Xue
2020, 4(3): 285 -295   doi: 10.26464/epp2020024
By using atmospheric wind data in the mesopause and lower thermosphere (MLT) region, features of seasonal variations in the quasi-6-day wave (6DW) at different latitudes are analyzed, and modulation of the 6DW by the diurnal tide and solar 27-day period is discussed. The data used in the analysis are extracted from a wind dataset collected by a meteor radar chain from December 2008 to November 2017. The meteor radar chain includes four stations, in Mohe, Beijing, Wuhan, and Sanya. Features of seasonal variations in the 6DW indicate that in summer the 6DW is usually strongest during July and August, followed by stronger variations in January and April. At certain altitudes over Wuhan and Sanya, the 6DW is slightly different in different years and altitudes. In our analysis of seasonal variations in the 6DW, we find that it is generally affected by annual oscillations and semiannual oscillations. The annual oscillations of the 6DW in the mid-low latitudes are modulated by the quasibiennial oscillation in the diurnal tide, resulting in seasonal features that are different from those at other latitudes. In addition, the 6DW amplitude at mid-high latitudes has a significant 27-day solar rotation variation, which was prominent in 2016.
Modeling co-seismic thermal infrared brightness anomalies in petroliferous basins surrounding the North and East of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau
Xin Zhang, LiFeng Zhang
2020, 4(3): 296 -307   doi: 10.26464/epp2020029
Co-seismic gas leakage usually occurs on the edge of seismic faults in petroliferous basins, and it may have an impact on the local environment, such as the greenhouse effect, which can cause thermal infrared brightness anomalies. Using wavelet transform and power spectrum estimation methods, we processed brightness temperature data from the Chinese geostationary meteorological satellite FY-C/E. We report similarities between the co-seismic thermal infrared brightness (CTIB) anomalies before, during and after earthquakes that occurred at the edges of the Sichuan, Tarim, Qaidam, and Junggar basins surrounding the North and East of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau in western China. Additionally, in each petroliferous basin, the area of a single CTIB anomaly accounted for 50% to 100% of the basin area, and the spatial distribution similarities in the CTIB anomalies existed before, during and after these earthquakes. To better interpret the similarities, we developed a basin warming effect model based on geological structures and topography. The model suggests that in a petroliferous basin with a subsurface gas reservoir, gas leakage could strengthen with the increasing stress before, during, and even after an earthquake. The accumulation of these gases, such as the greenhouse gases CH4 and CO2, results in the CTIB anomalies. In addition, we conclude that the CTIB anomalies are strengthened by the high mountains (altitude ~5000 m) around the basins and the basins’ independent climatic conditions. This work provides a new perspective from which to understand the CTIB anomalies in petroliferous basins surrounding the North and East of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau.
Paleoclimatic and provenance implications of magnetic parameters from the Miocene sediments in the Subei Basin
YouSheng Li, JiMin Sun, ZhiLiang Zhang, Bai Su, ShengChen Tian, MengMeng Cao
2020, 4(3): 308 -316   doi: 10.26464/epp2020030
Thick sediments from foreland basins usually provide valuable information for understanding the relationships between mountain building, rock denudation, and sediment deposition. In this paper, we report environmental magnetic measurements performed on the Miocene sediments in the Subei Basin, northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Our results show two different patterns. First, the bulk susceptibility and SIRM, ARM, and HIRM mainly reflect the absolute-concentration of magnetic minerals; all have increased remarkably since 13.7 Ma, related to provenance change rather than climate change. Second, the ratios of IRM100mT/SIRM, IRM100mT/IRM30mT, and IRM100mT/IRM60mT, together with the redness and S ratio, reflect the relative-concentration of hematite, being climate-dependent. Their vertical changes correlate in general with the long-term Miocene climatic records of marine oxygen isotope variations, marked by the existence of higher ratios between 17 and 14 Ma. This may imply that global climate change, rather than uplift of the Tibetan Plateau, played a dominant role in the long-term climatic evolution of the Subei area from the early to middle Miocene.
3-D shear wave velocity structure in the shallow crust of the Tan-Lu fault zone in Lujiang, Anhui, and adjacent areas, and its tectonic implications
Cheng Li, HuaJian Yao, Yuan Yang, Song Luo, KangDong Wang, KeSong Wan, Jian Wen, Bin Liu
2020, 4(3): 317 -328   doi: 10.26464/epp2020026
The Tan-Lu fault zone is a large NNE-trending fault zone in eastern China. Investigations of the structures of the fault zone and its surrounding areas have attracted much attention. In this study, we used dense-array ambient noise tomography to construct a three-dimensional shear wave velocity model of shallow crust in an area about 80km × 70km in Lujiang, Anhui Province, eastern China. For approximately one month we collected continuous ambient noise signals recorded by 90 short-period seismographs in the region, and obtained the short-period Rayleigh wave empirical Green's functions between stations by the cross-correlation method; we also extracted 0.5–8 s fundamental mode Rayleigh wave group velocity and phase velocity dispersion curves. Based on the direct surface wave tomography method, we jointly inverted the group velocity and phase velocity dispersion data of all paths and obtained the 3-D shear wave velocity structure in the depth range of 0–5 km. The results revealed important geological structural features of the study area. In the north region, the sedimentary center of the Hefei Basin — the southwestern part of the Chaohu Lake — shows a significant low-velocity anomaly to a depth of at least 5 km. The southwestern and southeastern regions of the array are the eastern margin of the Dabie orogenic belt and the intrusion area of Luzong volcanic rocks, respectively, and both show obvious high-speed anomalies; the sedimentary area within the Tan-Lu fault zone (about 10 km wide) shows low-velocity anomalies. However, the volcanic rock intrusion area in the fault zone is shown as high velocity. Our shallow crustal imaging results reflect the characteristics of different structures in the study area, especially the high-speed intrusive rocks in the Tan-Lu fault zone, which were probably partially derived from the magmatic activity of Luzong volcanic basin. From the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary, the Tan-Lu fault zone was in a period of extensional activity; the special stress environment and the fractured fault zone morphology provided conditions for magma in the Luzong volcanic basin to intrude into the Tan-Lu fault zone in the west. Our 3-D model can also provide important information for deep resource exploration and earthquake strong ground motion simulation.
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Corotating drift-bounce resonance of plasmaspheric electron with poloidal ULF waves
Qiu-Gang Zong, YongFu Wang, Jie Ren, XuZhi Zhou, SuiYan Fu, Robert Rankin, Hui Zhang
2017, 1(1): 2-12   doi: 10.26464/epp2017002
Ambient noise surface wave tomography of marginal seas in east Asia
Qing Wang, XiaoDong Song, JianYe Ren
2017, 1(1): 13-25   doi: 10.26464/epp2017003
A seismic model for crustal structure in North China Craton
TianYu Zheng, YongHong Duan, WeiWei Xu, YinShuang Ai
2017, 1(1): 26-34   doi: 10.26464/epp2017004
Thermal structures of the Pacific lithosphere from magnetic anomaly inversion
Chun-Feng Li, Jian Wang
2018, 2(1): 52-66   doi: 10.26464/epp2018005
The first joint experimental results between SURA and CSES
XueMin Zhang, Vladimir Frolov, ShuFan Zhao, Chen Zhou, YaLu Wang, Alexander Ryabov, DuLin Zhai
2018, 2(6): 527-537   doi: 10.26464/epp2018051
Different earthquake patterns for two neighboring fault segments within the Haiyuan Fault zone
ZhiKun Ren, ZhuQi Zhang, PeiZhen Zhang
2018, 2(1): 67-73   doi: 10.26464/epp2018006
Exact local refinement using Fourier interpolation for nonuniform-grid modeling
JinHai Zhang, ZhenXing Yao
2017, 1(1): 58-62   doi: 10.26464/epp2017008
Radiation belt electron scattering by whistler-mode chorus in the Jovian magnetosphere: Importance of ambient and wave parameters
BinBin Ni, Jing Huang, YaSong Ge, Jun Cui, Yong Wei, XuDong Gu, Song Fu, Zheng Xiang, ZhengYu Zhao
2018, 2(1): 1-14   doi: 10.26464/epp2018001
Monitoring the geospace response to the Great American Solar Eclipse on 21 August 2017
Shun-Rong Zhang, Philip J. Erickson, Larisa P. Goncharenko, Anthea J. Coster, Nathaniel A. Frissell
2017, 1(1): 72-76   doi: 10.26464/epp2017011
A simulation study of 630 nm and 557.7 nm airglow variations due to dissociative recombination and thermal electrons by high-power HF heating
Tong Dang, JiuHou Lei, XianKang Dou, WeiXing Wan
2017, 1(1): 44-52   doi: 10.26464/epp2017006

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