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CN  10-1502/P

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Is Solar Wind electron precipitation a source of neutral heating in the nightside Martian upper atmosphere?
LongKang Dai, Jun Cui, DanDan Niu, Hao Gu, YuTian Cao, XiaoShu Wu, HaiRong Lai
2021, 5(1): 1 -10   doi: 10.26464/epp2021012
Solar Wind (SW) electron precipitation is able to deposit a substantial amount of energy in the nightside Martian upper atmosphere, potentially exerting an influence on its thermal structure. This study serves as the first investigation of such an issue, with the aid of the simultaneous measurements of both neutral density and energetic electron intensity made on board the recent Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft. We report that, from a statistical point of view, the existing measurements do not support a scenario of noticeable neutral heating via SW electron precipitation. However, during 3%−4% of the MAVEN orbits for which data are available, strong correlation between nightside temperature and electron intensity is observed, manifested as collocated enhancements in both parameters, as compared to the surrounding regions. In addition, our analysis also indicates that neutral heating via SW electron precipitation tends to be more effective at altitudes below 160 km for integrated electron intensities above 0.01 ergs·cm−2·s−1 over the energy range of 3−450 eV. The results reported here highlight the necessity of incorporating SW electron precipitation as a heat source in the nightside Martian upper atmosphere under extreme circumstances such as during interplanetary coronal mass ejections.
Some features of effective radius and variance of dust particles in numerical simulations of the dust climate on Mars
Chi-Fong Wong, Kim-Chiu Chow, Kwing L. Chan, Jing Xiao, Yemeng Wang
2021, 5(1): 11 -18   doi: 10.26464/epp2021005
Airborne dust is an important constituent in the Martian atmosphere because of its radiative interaction with the atmospheric circulation. Dust size is one crucial factor in determining this effect. In reality dust sizes are varied; however, in numerical modeling of dust processes, dust size has usually been described by choice of a particular size distribution function, or by use of fixed values of effective radius (ER) and effective variance (EV). In this work, we present analytical expressions that have been derived to specify ER and EV for N-bin dust schemes, based on a model-calculated dust mixing ratio. Numerical simulations based on this approach thus would consider the effects of variable ER on the atmospheric radiation and their interaction. Results have revealed some interesting features of the dust distribution parameters, such as seasonal and spatial variation of ER and EV, which are generally consistent with some previous observational and modeling studies. Compared with the usual approach of using a fixed ER, simulation results from the present approach suggest that the variability of ER can have significant effects on the simulated thermal field of the Martian atmosphere.
An updated constraint on the local stratigraphy at the Chang'E-4 landing site
YiRen Chang, ZhiYong Xiao, YiChen Wang, ChunYu Ding, Jun Cui, YuZhen Cai
2021, 5(1): 19 -31   doi: 10.26464/epp2021007
The Chang’E-4 mission has been exploring the lunar farside. Two scientific targets of the rover onboard are (1) resolving the possible mineralogy related to the South Pole-Aitken basin and (2) understanding the subsurface processes at the lunar farside. Publications to date that are based on the reflectance spectra and radar data obtained by the rover have shown a persistent inconsistency about the local stratigraphy. To explain both the abnormal surface topography at the landing site and the unexpected radargram observed by the rover, the Alder crater has been frequently reported to be older than the mare basalts at that landing site. However, this argument is not supported by earlier geological mapping nor recent crater statistics. Resolving this controversy is critical for a full understanding of the geological history of the landing area and for correct interpretations of the scientific data returned. Employing detailed crater statistics, rigorous statistical analyses, and an updated crater chronology function, this study is determined to resolve the relative ages of the Alder crater, Finsen crater, and the mare basalts on the floor of Von Kármán. Our results reveal that while background secondaries and local resurfacing have widely occurred in the study area, affecting age determinations, the statistics are significant enough to conclude that the Alder crater is the oldest among the three targets. This independent constraint is consistent with both the crosscutting relationships of different terrains in this area and global stratigraphic mapping. Our results exclude Alder as a possible contributor of the post-mare deposits at the landing site, appealing for a more systematic stratigraphy study to resolve the provenances of these deposits.
Formation of the mass density peak at the magnetospheric equator triggered by EMIC waves
ZuXiang Xue, ZhiGang Yuan, XiongDong Yu, ShiYong Huang, Zheng Qiao
2021, 5(1): 32 -41   doi: 10.26464/epp2021008
We report a simultaneous observation of two band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and toroidal Alfvén waves by the Van Allen Probe mission. Through wave frequency analyses, the mass density ρ is found to be locally peaked at the magnetic equator. Perpendicular fluxes of ions (< 100 eV) increase simultaneously with the appearances of EMIC waves, indicating a heating of these ions by EMIC waves. In addition, the measured ion distributions also support the equatorial peak formation, which accords with the result of the frequency analyses. The formation of local mass density peaks at the equator should be due to enhancements of equatorial ion concentrations, which are triggered by EMIC waves’ perpendicular heating on low energy ions.
Characteristic analysis of layered PMSEs measured with different elevation angles at VHF based on an experimental case
ShuCan Ge, HaiLong Li, Bin Xu, Tong Xu, Lin Meng, MaoYan Wang, Abdel Hannachi, MengYan Zhu, Lina Broman, Safi Ullah, Abdur Rauf
2021, 5(1): 42 -51   doi: 10.26464/epp2021001
Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) are very strong radar echoes observed at altitudes near the polar summer mesopause. One of the essential properties of these radar echoes is that they can give useful diagnostic information about the physics of the scattering process. In this paper, the related characteristics of PMSEs measured with the European Incoherent SCATter Very High Frequency (EISCAT VHF) 224 MHz radar on 13–15 July 2010 are studied at different elevation angles from 78° to 90°. It is found that the PMSEs peak power and strongest PMSEs average power occur at the same elevation angles. Also interesting is that the strongest PMSEs occur at off-vertical angles when a PMSEs has a layered (multilayer) structure. And reflection may have more significant effects on PMSEs when there are double or multilayer PMSEs. Possible explanations regarding these observations are discussed.
Nighttime meridional neutral wind responses to SAPS simulated by the TIEGCM: A universal time effect
KeDeng Zhang, Hui Wang, WenBin Wang, Jing Liu, ShunRong Zhang, Cheng Sheng
2021, 5(1): 52 -62   doi: 10.26464/epp2021004
The present work uses the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), under geomagnetically disturbed conditions that are closely related to the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), to investigate how the nighttime poleward wind (30°–50° magnetic latitude and 19–22 magnetic local time) responds to subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) that commence at different universal times (UTs). The SAPS effects on the poleward winds show a remarkable UT variation, with weaker magnitudes at 00 and 12 UT than at 06 and 18 UT. The strongest poleward wind emerges when SAPS commence at 06 UT, and the weakest poleward wind develops when SAPS occur at 00 UT. A diagnostic analysis of model results shows that the pressure gradient is more prominent for the developing of the poleward wind at 00 and 12 UT. Meanwhile, the effect of ion drag is important in the modulation of the poleward wind velocity at 06 and 18 UT. This is caused by the misalignment of the geomagnetic and geographic coordinate systems, resulting in a large component of ion drag in the geographically northward (southward) direction due to channel orientation of the SAPS at 06 and 18 UT (00 and 12 UT). The Coriolis force effect induced by westward winds maximizes (minimizes) when SAPS commence at 12 UT (00 UT). The centrifugal force due to the accelerated westward winds shows similar UT variations as the Coriolis force, but with an opposite effect.
Statistical properties of kinetic-scale magnetic holes in terrestrial space
ShuTao Yao, ZongShun Yue, QuanQi Shi, Alexander William Degeling, HuiShan Fu, AnMin Tian, Hui Zhang, Andrew Vu, RuiLong Guo, ZhongHua Yao, Ji Liu, Qiu-Gang Zong, XuZhi Zhou, JingHuan Li, WenYa Li, HongQiao Hu, YangYang Liu, WeiJie Sun
2021, 5(1): 63 -72   doi: 10.26464/epp2021011
Kinetic-scale magnetic holes (KSMHs) are structures characterized by a significant magnetic depression with a length scale on the order of the proton gyroradius. These structures have been investigated in recent studies in near-Earth space, and found to be closely related to energy conversion and particle acceleration, wave-particle interactions, magnetic reconnection, and turbulence at the kinetic-scale. However, there are still several major issues of the KSMHs that need further study — including (a) the source of these structures (locally generated in near-Earth space, or carried by the solar wind), (b) the environmental conditions leading to their generation, and (c) their spatio-temporal characteristics. In this study, KSMHs in near-Earth space are investigated statistically using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. Approximately 200,000 events were observed from September 2015 to March 2020. Occurrence rates of such structures in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail were obtained. We find that KSMHs occur in the magnetosheath at rates far above their occurrence in the solar wind. This indicates that most of the structures are generated locally in the magnetosheath, rather than advected with the solar wind. Moreover, KSMHs occur in the downstream region of the quasi-parallel shock at rates significantly higher than in the downstream region of the quasi-perpendicular shock, indicating a relationship with the turbulent plasma environment. Close to the magnetopause, we find that the depths of KSMHs decrease as their temporal-scale increases. We also find that the spatial-scales of the KSMHs near the subsolar magnetosheath are smaller than those in the flanks. Furthermore, their global distribution shows a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry (duskside dominating) in the magnetotail.
Wide-field aurora imager onboard Fengyun satellite: Data products and validation
GuangXing Ding, JiaWei Li, XiaoXin Zhang, Fei He, LingPing He, KeFei Song, Liang Sun, Shuang Dai, ShiJie Liu, Bo Chen, Chao Yu, XiuQing Hu, SongYan Gu, ZhongDong Yang, Peng Zhang
2021, 5(1): 73 -78   doi: 10.26464/epp2021003
New observations of auroras based on the wide-field aurora imager (WAI) onboard Fengyun-3D (FY-3D) satellite are exhibited in this paper. Validity of the WAI data is analyzed by comparing auroral boundaries derived from WAI observations with results obtained from data collected by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F18). Dynamic variations of the aurora with the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parameters, and the SYM-H index are also investigated. The comparison of auroral boundaries indicates that the WAI data are morphologically valid and suitable to the study of auroral dynamics. Effective responses to solar wind parameters indicate that the WAI data can be useful to monitor and predict the Earth’s space weather. Since the configuration of aurora is a good indicator of the solar wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere (SW-M-I) coupling system, and can reflect the disturbance of the space environment, the WAI will provide important data to help us to study the physical processes in space.
Case study on stratospheric and mesospheric concentric gravity waves generated by deep convection
GuoChun Shi, Xiong Hu, ZhiGang Yao, WenJie Guo, MingChen Sun, XiaoYan Gong
2021, 5(1): 79 -89   doi: 10.26464/epp2021002
Concentric gravity waves (CGWs) in the middle and upper atmosphere show wave-coupling processes between the lower atmosphere and the middle and upper atmosphere. In this research, we analyzed a case of CGWs detected simultaneously by the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and the VIIRS/DNB (Day/Night Band of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Results showed that gravity waves (GWs) were generated by the collocated Hurricane Bejisa on the island of Mauritius. The AIRS data showed arc-like phase fronts of GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 190 and 150 km at 21:08 coordinated universal time (UTC) on 1 January 2014 and at 10:00 UTC on 2 January 2014, whereas the DNB observed arced GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 60 and 150 km in the same geographic regions at 22:24 UTC. The characteristics of CGW parameters in the stratosphere (~40 km) and the mesosphere (~87 km), such as the vertical wavelength, intrinsic frequency, and intrinsic horizontal phase speed, were first derived together with the background winds from ERA5 reanalysis data and Horizontal Wind Model data through the dispersion relationship of GWs and the wind-filtering theory.
Treatment of discontinuities inside Earth models: Effects on computed coseismic deformations
Jie Dong, Gabriele Cambiotti, HanJiang Wen, Roberto Sabadini, WenKe Sun
2021, 5(1): 90 -104   doi: 10.26464/epp2021010
In this paper, we study how coseismic deformations calculated in 1066 Earth models are affected by how the models treat Earth discontinuities. From the results of applying models 1066A (continuous) and 1066B (discontinuous), we find that the difference in Love numbers of strike-slip and horizontal tensile sources are bigger than dip-slip and vertical tensile sources. Taken collectively, discontinuities have major effects on Green’s functions of four independent sources. For the near-field coseismic deformations of the 2013 Okhotsk earthquake (Mw 8.3), the overall differences between theoretical calculations in vertical displacement, geoid, and gravity changes caused by discontinuities are 10.52 percent, 9.07 percent and 6.19 percent, with RMS errors of 0.624 mm, 0.029 mm, and 0.063 μGal, respectively. The difference in far-field displacements is small, compared with GPS data, and we can neglect this effect. For the shallow earthquake, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0), the differences in near-field displacements are 0.030 m (N-S), 0.093 m (E-W), and 0.025 m (up-down) in our study area with the ARIA slip model, which gives results closer to GPS data than those from the USGS model. The difference in vertical displacements and gravity changes on the Earth’s surface caused by discontinuities are larger than 10 percent. The difference in the theoretical gravity changes at spatially fixed points truncated to degrees 60, as required by GRACE data, is 0.0016 μGal and the discrepancy is 11 percent, with the theoretical spatial gravity changes from 1066B closer to observations than from 1066A. The results show that an Earth model with discontinuities in the medium has a large effect on the calculated coseismic deformations.
Morphology and possible origins of the Perm anomaly in the lowermost mantle of Earth
YuMei He, LianXing Wen, Yann Capdeville
2021, 5(1): 105 -116   doi: 10.26464/epp2021009
We have constrained a small-scale, dome-shaped low-velocity structure near the core-mantle boundary (CMB) of Earth beneath Perm (the Perm anomaly) using travel-time analysis and three-dimensional (3-D) forward waveform modeling of seismic data sampling of the mantle. The best-fitting dome-shaped model centers at 60.0°E, 50.5°N, and has a height of 400 km and a radius that increases from 200 km at the top to 450 km at the CMB. Its velocity reduction varies from 0% at the top to –3.0% at 240km above the CMB to –3.5% at the CMB. A surrounding 240-km-thick high-velocity D'' structure has also been detected. The Perm anomaly may represent a stable small-scale chemical pile in the lowermost mantle, although the hypothesis of a developing mantle plume cannot be ruled out.
Dielectric permittivity of dusty plasma in the Earth's mesosphere
Hui Li, Jian Wu
2021, 5(1): 117 -120   doi: 10.26464/epp2021006
This paper deals with the dielectric permittivity of dusty plasma in the earth’s mesosphere. We give expressions for the complex dielectric permittivity of dusty plasma, taking into account the effects of the dust charging process and magnetic field. We discuss the dielectric permittivity of dusty plasma in several cases, such as high frequency approximation, parallel propagation in MF/HF band, and effects of plasma movement. Finally, the expressions are employed to study the phenomenon of radar echoes from the polar summer mesosphere. We report that dielectric permittivity caused by the dust charging process gives a radar cross section proportional to ω–4 and produces a number density of charged dust that agrees with measurements of mesopheric radar echoes.
Annual Meeting minutes of the Chinese Geoscience Union, 2020
QingHua Huang
2021, 5(1): 121 -121   doi: 10.26464/epp2021013
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Corotating drift-bounce resonance of plasmaspheric electron with poloidal ULF waves
Qiu-Gang Zong, YongFu Wang, Jie Ren, XuZhi Zhou, SuiYan Fu, Robert Rankin, Hui Zhang
2017, 1(1): 2-12   doi: 10.26464/epp2017002
Ambient noise surface wave tomography of marginal seas in east Asia
Qing Wang, XiaoDong Song, JianYe Ren
2017, 1(1): 13-25   doi: 10.26464/epp2017003
A seismic model for crustal structure in North China Craton
TianYu Zheng, YongHong Duan, WeiWei Xu, YinShuang Ai
2017, 1(1): 26-34   doi: 10.26464/epp2017004
Thermal structures of the Pacific lithosphere from magnetic anomaly inversion
Chun-Feng Li, Jian Wang
2018, 2(1): 52-66   doi: 10.26464/epp2018005
The first joint experimental results between SURA and CSES
XueMin Zhang, Vladimir Frolov, ShuFan Zhao, Chen Zhou, YaLu Wang, Alexander Ryabov, DuLin Zhai
2018, 2(6): 527-537   doi: 10.26464/epp2018051
A brief review of equatorial ionization anomaly and ionospheric irregularities
Nanan Balan, LiBo Liu, HuiJun Le
2018, 2(4): 257-275   doi: 10.26464/epp2018025
Different earthquake patterns for two neighboring fault segments within the Haiyuan Fault zone
ZhiKun Ren, ZhuQi Zhang, PeiZhen Zhang
2018, 2(1): 67-73   doi: 10.26464/epp2018006
Radiation belt electron scattering by whistler-mode chorus in the Jovian magnetosphere: Importance of ambient and wave parameters
BinBin Ni, Jing Huang, YaSong Ge, Jun Cui, Yong Wei, XuDong Gu, Song Fu, Zheng Xiang, ZhengYu Zhao
2018, 2(1): 1-14   doi: 10.26464/epp2018001
Exact local refinement using Fourier interpolation for nonuniform-grid modeling
JinHai Zhang, ZhenXing Yao
2017, 1(1): 58-62   doi: 10.26464/epp2017008
Monitoring the geospace response to the Great American Solar Eclipse on 21 August 2017
Shun-Rong Zhang, Philip J. Erickson, Larisa P. Goncharenko, Anthea J. Coster, Nathaniel A. Frissell
2017, 1(1): 72-76   doi: 10.26464/epp2017011

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