New observations of auroras based on the wide-field aurora imager (WAI) onboard Fengyun-3D (FY-3D) satellite are exhibited in this paper. Validity of the WAI data is analyzed by comparing auroral boundaries derived from WAI observations with results obtained from data collected by the Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) aboard the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP F18). Dynamic variations of the aurora with the solar wind, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) parameters, and the SYM-H index are also investigated. The comparison of auroral boundaries indicates that the WAI data are morphologically valid and suitable to the study of auroral dynamics. Effective responses to solar wind parameters indicate that the WAI data can be useful to monitor and predict the Earth’s space weather. Since the configuration of aurora is a good indicator of the solar wind–magnetosphere–ionosphere (SW-M-I) coupling system, and can reflect the disturbance of the space environment, the WAI will provide important data to help us to study the physical processes in space.
Airborne dust is an important constituent in the Martian atmosphere because of its radiative interaction with the atmospheric circulation. Dust size is one crucial factor in determining this effect. In reality dust sizes are varied; however, in numerical modeling of dust processes, dust size has usually been described by choice of a particular size distribution function, or by use of fixed values of effective radius (ER) and effective variance (EV). In this work, we present analytical expressions that have been derived to specify ER and EV for N-bin dust schemes, based on a model-calculated dust mixing ratio. Numerical simulations based on this approach thus would consider the effects of variable ER on the atmospheric radiation and their interaction. Results have revealed some interesting features of the dust distribution parameters, such as seasonal and spatial variation of ER and EV, which are generally consistent with some previous observational and modeling studies. Compared with the usual approach of using a fixed ER, simulation results from the present approach suggest that the variability of ER can have significant effects on the simulated thermal field of the Martian atmosphere.
The present work uses the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), under geomagnetically disturbed conditions that are closely related to the southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), to investigate how the nighttime poleward wind (30°–50° magnetic latitude and 19–22 magnetic local time) responds to subauroral polarization streams (SAPS) that commence at different universal times (UTs). The SAPS effects on the poleward winds show a remarkable UT variation, with weaker magnitudes at 00 and 12 UT than at 06 and 18 UT. The strongest poleward wind emerges when SAPS commence at 06 UT, and the weakest poleward wind develops when SAPS occur at 00 UT. A diagnostic analysis of model results shows that the pressure gradient is more prominent for the developing of the poleward wind at 00 and 12 UT. Meanwhile, the effect of ion drag is important in the modulation of the poleward wind velocity at 06 and 18 UT. This is caused by the misalignment of the geomagnetic and geographic coordinate systems, resulting in a large component of ion drag in the geographically northward (southward) direction due to channel orientation of the SAPS at 06 and 18 UT (00 and 12 UT). The Coriolis force effect induced by westward winds maximizes (minimizes) when SAPS commence at 12 UT (00 UT). The centrifugal force due to the accelerated westward winds shows similar UT variations as the Coriolis force, but with an opposite effect.
Concentric gravity waves (CGWs) in the middle and upper atmosphere show wave-coupling processes between the lower atmosphere and the middle and upper atmosphere. In this research, we analyzed a case of CGWs detected simultaneously by the AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and the VIIRS/DNB (Day/Night Band of the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite) in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Results showed that gravity waves (GWs) were generated by the collocated Hurricane Bejisa on the island of Mauritius. The AIRS data showed arc-like phase fronts of GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 190 and 150 km at 21:08 coordinated universal time (UTC) on 1 January 2014 and at 10:00 UTC on 2 January 2014, whereas the DNB observed arced GWs with horizontal wavelengths of 60 and 150 km in the same geographic regions at 22:24 UTC. The characteristics of CGW parameters in the stratosphere (~40 km) and the mesosphere (~87 km), such as the vertical wavelength, intrinsic frequency, and intrinsic horizontal phase speed, were first derived together with the background winds from ERA5 reanalysis data and Horizontal Wind Model data through the dispersion relationship of GWs and the wind-filtering theory.
Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSEs) are very strong radar echoes observed at altitudes near the polar summer mesopause. One of the essential properties of these radar echoes is that they can give useful diagnostic information about the physics of the scattering process. In this paper, the related characteristics of PMSEs measured with the European Incoherent SCATter Very High Frequency (EISCAT VHF) 224 MHz radar on 13–15 July 2010 are studied at different elevation angles from 78° to 90°. It is found that the PMSEs peak power and strongest PMSEs average power occur at the same elevation angles. Also interesting is that the strongest PMSEs occur at off-vertical angles when a PMSEs has a layered (multilayer) structure. And reflection may have more significant effects on PMSEs when there are double or multilayer PMSEs. Possible explanations regarding these observations are discussed.
The Chang’E-4 mission has been exploring the lunar farside. Two scientific targets of the rover onboard are (1) resolving the possible mineralogy related to the South Pole-Aitken basin and (2) understanding the subsurface processes at the lunar farside. Among hitherto publications based on the reflectance spectra and radar data obtained by the rover, a persisted inconsistency exists about the local stratigraphy. To explain both the abnormal surface topography at the landing site and the unexpected radargram observed by the rover, the Alder crater has been frequently cited to be older than the mare basalts at that landing site. However, this argument is not supported by earlier geological mapping nor recent crater statistics. Resolving this controversy is critical for both a full understanding of the geological history of the landing area and correct interpretations of the scientific data returned. Employing detailed crater statistics, rigorous statistical analyses, and an updated crater chronology function, this study is determined to resolve the relative ages of the Alder crater, Finsen crater, and the mare basalts on the floor of Von Kármán. Our results reveal that while background secondaries and local resurfacing have widely occurred in the studying area, affecting age determinations, the statistics are significant enough to put a solid conclusion that the Alder crater is the oldest among the three targets. This independent constraint is consistent with both the crosscutting relationships of different terrains in this area and global stratigraphic mapping. Our results exclude Alder as a possible contributor of the post-mare deposits at the landing site, appealing for a more systematic stratigraphy study to resolve the provenances of these deposits.
Solar Wind (SW) electron precipitation is able to deposit a substantial amount of energy in the nightside Martian upper atmosphere, potentially exerting an influence on its thermal structure. This study serves as the first investigation of such an issue, with the aid of the simultaneous measurements of both neutral density and energetic electron intensity made on board the recent Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft. We report that, from a statistical point of view, the existing measurements do not support a scenario of noticeable neutral heating via SW electron precipitation. However, strong correlation between nightside temperature and electron intensity is observed during 3% ~ 4% of available MAVEN orbits, manifest as collocating enhancements in both parameters as compared to the surrounding regions. In addition, our analysis also indicates that neutral heating via SW electron precipitation tends to be more effective at altitudes below 160 km for integrated electron intensity above 0.01 ergs 〖cm〗^(-2) s^(-1) over the energy range of 3 eV – 450 eV. The results reported here highlight the necessity of incorporating SW electron precipitation as a heat source in the nightside Martian upper atmosphere under extreme circumstances such as during interplanetary coronal mass ejections.
In this paper, the effects of discontinuities in the 1066 model on the calculation of coseismic deformations are studied. From the results of models 1066A (continuous) and 1066B (discontinuous), the difference in Love numbers of strike-slip and horizontal tensile sources are bigger than dip-slip and vertical tensile sources. Taken collectively, discontinuities have major effects on Green’s functions of four independent sources. For the near-field coseismic deformations of 2013 Okhotsk earthquake (Mw 8.3), the overall differences between theoretical calculations in vertical displacement, geoid and gravity changes caused by discontinuities are 10.52 percent, 9.07 percent and 6.19 percent, whose RMS errors are 0.624 mm, 0.029 mm and 0.063 µGal, respectively. The difference on far-field displacements is small, compared with the GPS, and we can neglect this effect. For a shallow earthquake, 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake (Mw 9.0), the differences in the near-field displacements are 0.030 m (N-S), 0.093 m (E-W) and 0.025 m (up-down) in our study area with ARIA slip model, which is closer to the GPS than those from USGS model. The difference in vertical displacements and gravity changes on the Earth surface caused by discontinuities are larger than 10 percent. The difference on the theoretical gravity changes at spatially fixed points truncated to degrees 60, as required by GRACE data, is 0.0016 µGal and the discrepancy is 11 percent, with the theoretical spatial gravity changes from 1066B are closer to observations. The results show that an Earth model with discontinuities in the medium has a large effect on the calculated coseismic deformations.
We report a simultaneous observation of two band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves and toroidal Alfvén waves by the Van Allen Probe mission. Through wave frequency analyses, the mass density ρ is found to be locally peaked at magnetic equator. Perpendicular fluxes of ions (< 100 eV) increase simultaneously with the appearances of EMIC waves, indicating a heating of these ions by EMIC waves. In addition, the measured ion distributions also support the equatorial peak formation, which is in accordance to the result of the frequency analyses. The formation of local mass density peaks at equator should be due to enhancements of equatorial ion concentrations, which are triggered by EMIC waves’ perpendicular heating on low energy ions.
This paper deals with the dielectric permittivity of dusty plasma in the earth’s mesosphere. We give expressions for the complex dielectric permittivity of dusty plasma, taking into account the effects of the dust charging process and magnetic field. We discuss the dielectric permittivity of dusty plasma in several cases, such as high frequency approximation, parallel propagation in MF/HF band, and effects of plasma movement. Finally, the expressions are employed to study the phenomenon of radar echoes from the polar summer mesosphere. It is illustrated that dielectric permittivity caused by the dust charging process gives a radar cross section proportional to ω-4 and to the production of charged dust number density, which coincides with radar echo measurements in the mesosphere.
Kinetic-scale magnetic holes (KSMHs) are structures characterized by a significant magnetic depression with length scale on the order of the proton gyroradius. These structures have been investigated in recent studies in near-Earth space, and found to be closely related to energy conversion and particle acceleration, wave-particle interactions, magnetic reconnection, and turbulence at the kinetic-scale. However, there are still several major issues of the KSMHs that need further study, for example, the source of these structures (locally generated in near-Earth space, or carried by the solar wind), the environmental conditions leading to their generation, and their spatio-temporal characteristics. In this study, KSMHs in near-Earth space are statistically investigated using data from the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. Approximately two hundred thousand events are observed from September 2015 to March 2020. Occurrence rates of such structures in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail are obtained. It is found that the occurrence rate of the KSMHs in the magnetosheath is far above that in the solar wind. This indicates that most of the structures are locally generated in the magnetosheath, rather than convected from the solar wind. Moreover, the occurrence rate of the KSMHs in the downstream region of the quasi-parallel shock is significantly higher than in the downstream region of the quasi-perpendicular shock, indicating a relationship with the turbulent plasma environment. Close to the magnetopause, we find that the depths of KSMHs decrease as their temporal-scale increases. We also find that the spatial-scales of the KSMHs near the subsolar magnetosheath are smaller than those in the flanks. Furthermore, the global distribution shows a significant dawn-dusk asymmetry (duskside dominating) in the magnetotail.
In recent studies of the Martian atmosphere, strong diurnal variation in the dust was discovered in the southern hemisphere during major dust storms, which provides strong evidence that the commonly recognized meridional transport process is driven by thermal tides. This process, when coupled with deep convection, could be an important part of the short-term atmospheric dynamics of water escape. However, the potential of this process to alter the horizontal distribution of moist air has not been systematically investigated. In this work, we conducted pre-research on the horizontal transport of water vapor associated with the migrating diurnal tide (DW1) at 50 Pa in the upper troposphere during major dust storms based on the Mars Climate Database (MCD) 5.3, a state-of-the-art database for Martian atmospheric research that has been validated as simulating the relevant short-period atmospheric dynamics well. We found westward-propagating diurnal patterns in the global water vapor front during nearly all the major dust storms from Martian years (MYs) 24 to 32. Statistical and correlation analyses showed that the diurnal transport of water vapor during global and A-season regional dust storms is dominated by the DW1. The effect of the tidal transport of water vapor varies with the types of dust storms in different seasons. During regional dust storms, the tidal transport induces only limited diurnal motion of the water vapor. However, the horizontal tidal wind tends to increase the abundance of daytime water vapor at mid- to low latitudes during the MY 28 southern summer global dust storm while decreasing it during the MY 25 southern spring global dust storm. The tidal transport process during these two global dust storms can induce opposite effects on water escape.
The characteristics of high-frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation can be affected when EM waves propagate in the ionosphere. When ionospheric irregularities appear in the ionosphere, they can have a serious impact on the propagation of HF EM waves. In this study, the propagation of HF EM waves in ionospheric irregularities was investigated by numerical simulation. First, a two-dimensional model of plasma bubbles was used to produce ionospheric irregularities in the ionosphere. A ray-tracing method was then utilized to simulate the propagation of HF radio waves in these ionospheric irregularities. Results showed that the propagation of HF radio waves in the ionosphere was more complex in ionospheric irregularities than without ionospheric irregularities. In addition, corresponding ionograms were synthesized by radio rays propagated in the ionosphere with these irregularities. The synthesized ionograms were then compared with the experimental ionograms recorded by an ionosonde. Results showed that spread F could be simulated on the ionograms when ionospheric irregularities occurred in the ionosphere. This result was consistent with the ionosonde observations.
Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSEs) are very strong radar echoes in the polar mesopause in local summer. Here we present the frequency dependence of the volume reflectivity and the effect of energetic particle precipitation on modulated PMSEs by using PMSEs observations carried out by European Incoherent SCATter (EISCAT) heating equipment simultaneously with very high frequency (VHF) radar and ultra high frequency (UHF) radar on 12 July 2007. According to the experimental observations, the PMSEs occurrence rate at VHF was much higher than that at UHF, and the altitude of the PMSEs maximum observed at VHF was higher than that at UHF. Overlapping regions were observed by VHF radar between high energetic particle precipitation and the PMSEs. In addition, high-frequency heating had a very limited impact on PMSEs when the UHF electron density was enhanced because of energetic particle precipitation. In addition, an updated qualitative method was used to study the relationship between volume reflectivity and frequency. The volume reflectivity was found to be inversely proportional to the fourth power of radar frequency. The theoretical and experimental results provide a definitive data foundation for further analysis and investigation of the physical mechanism of PMSEs.
In the past decades, the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful instruments for ionosphere monitoring. The Institute of Geology and Geophysics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences was founded to build a state-of-the-art phased-array ISR at Sanya (18.3°N, 109.6°E), a low-latitude station on Hainan Island, named the Sanya ISR (SYISR). As a first step, a prototype radar system consisting of eight subarrays (SYISR-8) was built to reduce the technical risk of producing the entire large array. In this work, we have summarized the preliminary experimental results based on the SYISR-8. The amplitude and phase among 256 channels were first calibrated through an embedded internal monitoring network. The mean oscillation of the amplitude and phase after calibration were about 1 dB and 5°, respectively, which met the basic requirements. The beam directivity was confirmed by crossing screen of the International Space Station. The SYISR-8 was further used to detect the tropospheric wind profile and meteors. The derived winds were evaluated by comparison with independent radiosonde and balloon-based GPS measurements. The SYISR-8 was able to observe several typical meteor echoes, such as the meteor head echo, range-spread trail echo, and specular trail echo. These results confirmed the validity and reliability of the SYISR-8 system, thereby reducing the technical risk of producing the entire large array of the SYISR to some extent.
In this study, we present three experiments carried out at the EISCAT (European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association) heating facility on October 29 and 30, 2015. The results from the first experiment showed overshoot during the O-mode heating period. The second experiment, which used cold-start X-mode heating, showed the generation of parametric decay instability, whereas overshoot was not observed. The third experiment used power-stepped X-mode heating with noticeable O-mode wave leakage. Parametric decay instability and oscillating two-stream instability were generated at the O-mode reflection height without the overshoot effect, which implies suppression of the thermal parametric instability with X-mode heating. We propose that the electron temperature increased because X-mode heating below the upper hybrid height decreased the growth rate of the thermal parametric instability.
Radiation belt electron dropouts indicate electron flux decay to the background level during geomagnetic storms, which is commonly attributed to the effects of wave-induced pitch angle scattering and magnetopause shadowing. To investigate the loss mechanisms of radiation belt electron dropouts triggered by a solar wind dynamic pressure pulse event on 12 September 2014, we comprehensively analyzed the particle and wave measurements from Van Allen Probes. The dropout event was divided into three periods: before the storm, the initial phase of the storm, and the main phase of the storm. The electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) and electron flux dropouts during the initial and main phases of this storm were investigated, and the evolution of the radial profile of electron phase space density (PSD) and the (μ, K) dependence of electron PSD dropouts (where μ, K, and L* are the three adiabatic invariants) were analyzed. The energy-independent decay of electrons at L > 4.5 was accompanied by butterfly PADs, suggesting that the magnetopause shadowing process may be the major loss mechanism during the initial phase of the storm at L > 4.5. The features of electron dropouts and 90°-peaked PADs were observed only for >1 MeV electrons at L < 4, indicating that the wave-induced scattering effect may dominate the electron loss processes at the lower L-shell during the main phase of the storm. Evaluations of the (μ, K) dependence of electron PSD drops and calculations of the minimum electron resonant energies of H+-band electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves support the scenario that the observed PSD drop peaks around L* = 3.9 may be caused mainly by the scattering of EMIC waves, whereas the drop peaks around L* = 4.6 may result from a combination of EMIC wave scattering and outward radial diffusion.
We used historical data to trace trapped protons observed by the Fengyun-1C (FY-1C) satellite at low Earth orbits (~800 km) and chose data at 5–10 MeV, 10–40 MeV, 40–100 MeV, and ~100–300 MeV from 25 March to 18 April 2000 to analyze the proton variations. Only one isolated strong storm was associated with a solar proton event during this period, and there was no influence from previous proton variations. Complex dynamic phenomena of proton trapping and loss were affected by this disturbance differently depending on the energy and L location. The flux of 5–10 MeV protons increased and created new trapping with a maximum at L ~2.0, and the peak flux was significantly higher than that at the center of the South Atlantic Anomaly. However, at higher L, the flux showed obvious loss, with retreat of the outer boundary from L ~2.7 to L ~2.5. The increase in the 10–40 MeV proton flux was similar to that of the 5–10 MeV flux; however, the peak flux intensity was lower than that at the center of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The loss of the 10–40 MeV proton flux was closer to the Earth side, and the outer boundary was reduced from L ~2.3 to L ~2.25. For the higher energy protons of 40–100 MeV and 100–300 MeV, no new trapping was found. Loss of the 40–100 MeV protons was observed, and the outer boundary shifted from L ~2.0 to L ~1.9. Loss was not obvious for the 100–400 MeV protons, which were distributed within L < 1.8. New proton trapping was more likely to be created at lower energy in the region of solar proton injection by the strong magnetic storm, whereas loss occurred in a wide energy range and reduced the outer boundary on the Earth side. Similar dynamic changes were observed by the NOAA-15 satellite in the same period, but the FY-1C satellite observed more complex changes in lower energy protons. These results revealed that the dynamic behavior of protons with different L-shells was due to differences in the pitch angle. Possible mechanisms related to new trapping and loss are also discussed. These mechanisms are very important for understanding the behavior of the proton belt in the coming solar cycle.
Earth’s aurora is a luminescent phenomenon generated by the interaction between magnetospheric precipitating particles and the upper atmosphere; it plays an important role in magnetosphere–ionosphere (M-I) coupling. The transpolar arc (TPA) is a discrete auroral arc distributed in the noon-midnight direction poleward of the auroral oval and connects the dayside to the nightside sectors of the auroral oval. Studying the seasonal variation of TPA events can help us better understand the long-term variation of the interaction between the solar wind, the magnetosphere, and M-I coupling. However, a statistical study of the seasonal variation of TPA incidence has not previously been carried out. In this paper, we have identified 532 TPA events from the IMAGE database (2000–2005) and the Polar database (1996–2002), and calculated the incidence of TPA events for different months. We find a semiannual variation in TPA incidence. Clear peaks in the incidence of TPAs occur in March and September; a less pronounced peak appears in November. We also examine seasonal variation in the northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) over the same time period. The intensity and occurrence rate of the northward IMF exhibit patterns similar to that of the TPA incidence. Having studied IMF Bz before TPA onset, we find that strong and steady northward IMF conditions are favorable for TPA formation. We suggest that the semiannual variation observed in TPA incidence may be related to the Russell–McPherron (R-M) effect due to the projection effect of the IMF By under northward IMF conditions.
The 660-km discontinuity that separates the Earth's upper and lower mantle has primarily been attributed to phase changes in olivine and other minerals. Resolving the sharpness is essential for predicting the composition of the mantle and for understanding its dynamic effects. In this study, we used S-to-P conversions from the 660-km interface, termed S660P, arriving in the P-wave coda from one earthquake in the Izu–Bonin subduction zone recorded by stations in Alaska. The S660P signals were of high quality, providing us an unprecedented opportunity to resolve the sharpness of the discontinuity. Our study demonstrated, based on the impedance contrast given by the IASP91 model, that the discontinuity has a transitional thickness of ~5 km. In addition, we observed a prominent arrival right after the S660P, which was best explained by S-to-P conversions from a deeper discontinuity at a depth of ~720 km with a transitional thickness of ~20 km, termed S720P. The 720-km discontinuity is most likely the result of a phase transition from majoritic garnet to perovskite in the segregated oceanic crust (mainly the mid-oceanic ridge basalt composition) at the uppermost lower mantle beneath this area. The inferred phase changes are also consistent with predictions from mineral physics experiments.
Global geopotential models have not included the very high frequencies of the Earth’s external gravity field. This is called omission error. This omission error becomes more important in mountainous areas (areas with highly variable topography). The work reported here consists in reducing the omission error in measurements of Bouguer gravity anomalies, by refining the global geopotential model EGM2008 using the spectral enhancement method. This method consists in computing the residual terrain effects and then coupling them to the gravimetric signal of the global geopotential model. To compute the residual terrain effects, we used the Residual Terrain Model (RTM) technique. To refine it required a reference surface (ETOPO1) developed up to degree 2190 (the maximum degree of the EGM2008 model) and a detailed elevation model (AW3D30). Computation was performed with the TC program of the GRAVSOFT package. The topography of the study area was assumed to have a constant density of 2670 kg/m3. For the inner and outer zones, the respective integration radii of 10 km and 200 km have been chosen. We obtained very important RTM values ranging from −53.59 to 34.79 mGal. These values were added to the gravity anomalies grid of the EGM2008 model to improve accuracy at high frequencies. On a part of the Cameroon Volcanic Line and its surroundings (mountainous area), we made a comparison between the residual Bouguer anomalies before and after refinement. We report differences ranging from −37.40 to 26.40 mGal. We conclude that the impact of omission error on gravimetric signatures is observed especially in areas with high variable topography, such as on the Cameroon Volcanic Line and around the localities of Takamanda, Essu, Dumbo, and Ngambe. This finding illustrates the great influence that topography has on accurate measurement of these gravity anomalies, and thus why topography must be taken into account. We can conclude that in preparing a global geopotential model, a high resolution DTM must be used to decrease the omission error: the degree of expansion has to increase in order to take the higher frequencies into account. The refined Bouguer anomalies grid presented here can be used in addition to terrestrial gravity anomalies in the study area, especially in mountainous areas where gravimetric data are very sparse or non-existent.