Advanced Search

EPP

地球与行星物理

ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Song, Y. X., and Chen, C. X. (2022). Observation evidence for the entropy switch model of substorm onset. Earth Planet. Phys., 6(2), 161–176. http://doi.org/10.26464/epp2022020

2022, 6(2): 161-176. doi: 10.26464/epp2022020

SPACE PHYSICS: MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS

Observation evidence for the entropy switch model of substorm onset

CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China

Corresponding author: ChuXin Chen, chuxin@ustc.edu.cn

Received Date: 2021-10-11
Web Publishing Date: 2022-01-28

The cause of substorm onset is not yet understood. Chen CX (2016) proposed an entropy switch model, in which substorm onset results from the development of interchange instability. In this study, we sought observational evidence for this model by using Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data. We examined two events, one with and the other without a streamer before substorm onset. In contrast to the stable magnetosphere, where the total magnetic field strength is a decreasing function and entropy is an increasing function of the downtail distance, in both events the total magnetic field strength and entropy were reversed before substorm onset. After onset, the total magnetic field strength, entropy, and other plasma quantities fluctuated. In addition, a statistical study was performed. By confining the events with THEMIS satellites located in the downtail region between ~8 and ~12 Earth radii, and 3 hours before and after midnight, we found the occurrence rate of the total magnetic field strength reversal to be 69% and the occurrence rate of entropy reversal to be 77% of the total 205 events.

Key words: substorm onset, entropy switch model, interchange or ballooning instability, Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) data

Angelopoulos, V. (2008). The THEMIS mission. Space Sci. Rev., 141(1-4), 5–34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-008-9336-1

Auster, H. U., Glassmeier, K. H., Magnes, W., Aydogar, O., Baumjohann, W., Constantinescu, D., Fischer, D., Fornacon, K. H., Georgescu, E., … Wiedemann, M. (2008). The THEMIS fluxgate magnetometer. Space Sci. Rev., 141(1-4), 235–264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-008-9365-9

Chen, C. X., and Wolf, R. A. (1993). Interpretation of high-speed flows in the plasma sheet. J. Geophys. Res.:Space Phys., 98(A12), 21409–21419. https://doi.org/10.1029/93ja02080

Chen, C. X., and Wolf, R. A. (1999). Theory of thin-filament motion in Earth’s magnetotail and its application to bursty bulk flows. J. Geophys. Res.:Space Phys., 104(A7), 14613–14626. https://doi.org/10.1029/1999JA900005

Chen, C. X. (2013). Theoretical constraints on the cross-tail width of bursty bulk flows. Ann. Geophys., 31(12), 2179–2192. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-31-2179-2013

Chen, C. X. (2016). Substorm onset: a switch on the sequence of transport from decreasing entropy to increasing entropy. Geophys. Res. Lett., 43(10), 4834–4840. https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL069114

Chen, C. X., and Wang, C. P. (2019). Contribution of patchy reconnection to the ion-to-electron temperature ratio in the Earth's magnetotail. Earth Planet. Phys., 3(6), 474–480. https://doi.org/10.26464/epp2019049

Chen, C. X. (2021). Preservation and variation of ion-to-electron temperature ratio in the plasma sheet in geo-magnetotail. Earth Planet. Phys., 5(4), 337–347. https://doi.org/10.26464/epp2021035

Duan, S. P., Wang, C., Liu, W. W., and He, Z. H. (2021). Characteristics of magnetic dipolarizations in the vicinity of the substorm onset region observed by THEMIS. Earth Planet. Phys., 5(3), 239–250. https://doi.org/10.26464/epp2021031

Henderson, M. G., Reeves, G. D., and Murphree, J. S. (1998). Are north–south aligned auroral structures an ionospheric manifestation of bursty bulk flows?. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(19), 3737–3740. https://doi.org/10.1029/98GL02692

Hones, E. W. Jr. (1977). Substorm processes in the magnetotail: comments on ‘On hot tenuous plasmas, fireballs, and boundary layers in the Earth’s magnetotail' by L. A. Frank, K. L. Ackerson, and R. P. Lepping. J. Geophys. Res., 82(35), 5633–5640.

Lui, A. T. Y. (1991). A synthesis of magnetospheric substorm models. J. Geophys. Res.:Space Phys., 96(A2), 1849–1856. https://doi.org/10.1029/90JA02430

Lui, A. T. Y. (2011). Reduction of the cross-tail current during near-Earth dipolarization with multisatellite observations. J. Geophys. Res.:Space Phys., 116(A12), A12239. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA017107

Lyons, L. R., Wang, C. P., Nagai, T., Mukai, T., Saito, Y., and Samson, J. C. (2003). Substorm inner plasma sheet particle reduction. J. Geophys. Res.:Space Phys., 108(A12), 1426. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JA010177

McFadden, J. P., Carlson, C. W., Larson, D. Ludlam, M., Abiad, R., Elliott, B., Turin, P., Marckwordt, M., and Angelopoulos, V. (2008). The THEMIS ESA plasma instrument and in-flight calibration. Space Sci. Rev., 141(1-4), 277–302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-008-9440-2

Mende, S. B., Harris, S. E., Frey, H. U., Angelopoulos, V., Russell, C. T., Donovan, E., Jackel, B., Greffen, M., and Peticolas, L. M. (2008). The THEMIS array of ground-based observatories for the study of auroral substorms. Space Sci. Rev., 141(1-4), 357–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11214-008-9380-x

Nishimura, Y., Lyons, L., Zou, S., Angelopoulos, V., and Mende, S. (2010). Substorm triggering by new plasma intrusion: THEMIS all-sky imager observations. J. Geophys. Res.:Space Phys., 115(A7), A07222. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JA015166

Nishimura, Y., Lyons, L. R., Angelopoulos, V., Kikuchi, T., Zou, S., and Mende, S. B. (2011). Relations between multiple auroral streamers, pre-onset thin arc formation, and substorm auroral onset. J. Geophys. Res.:Space Phys., 116(A9), A09214. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011JA016768

Pontius, D. H. Jr., and Wolf, R. A. (1990). Transient flux tubes in the terrestrial magnetosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17(1), 49–52. https://doi.org/10.1029/GL017i001p00049

Sergeev, V. A., Liou, K., Meng, C. I., Newell, P. T., Brittnacher, M., Parks, G., and Reeves, G. D. (1999). Development of auroral streamers in association with localized impulsive injections to the inner magnetotail. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(3), 417–420. https://doi.org/10.1029/1998GL900311

Toffoletto, F. R., Spiro, R. W., Wolf, R. A., Birn, J., and Hesse, M. (2000). Computer experiments on substorm growth and expansion. In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Substorms (pp. 351–356). St. Petersburg, Russia: ESA.

Tsyganenko, N. A. (1989). A magnetospheric magnetic field model with a warped tail current sheet. Planet. Space Sci., 37(1), 5–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-0633(89)90066-4

Wolf, R. A., Toffoletto, F. R., Spiro, R. W., Hesse, M., and Birn, J. (2002). Magnetospheric substorms: an inner-magnetospheric modeling perspective. COSPAR Colloq. Ser., 12, 221–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0964-2749(02)80221-9

Wolf, R. A., Wan, Y. F., Xing, X., Zhang, J. C., and Sazykin, S. (2009). Entropy and plasma sheet transport. J. Geophys. Res., 114(A9), A00D05. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JA014044

Xing, X., Lyons, L. R., Zhou, X. Z., Angelopoulos, V., Donovan, E., Larson, D., Carlson, C., and Auster, U. (2012). On the formation of pre-onset azimuthal pressure gradient in the near-Earth plasma sheet. J. Geophys. Res., 117(A8), A08224. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JA017840

Xing, X. Y., Liang, J., Spanswick, E., Lyons, L., and Angelopoulos, V. (2013). Auroral wave structures and ballooning instabilities in the plasma sheet. J. Geophys. Res.:Space Phys., 118(10), 6319–6326. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JA019068

Zhu, P., Raeder, J., Germaschewski, K., and Hegna, C. C. (2009). Initiation of ballooning instability in the near-Earth plasma sheet prior to the 23 March 2007 THEMIS substorm expansion onset. Ann. Geophys., 27(3), 1129–1138. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-27-1129-2009

[1]

SuPing Duan, Chi Wang, Weining William Liu, ZhaoHai He, 2021: Characteristics of magnetic dipolarizations in the vicinity of the substorm onset region observed by THEMIS, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 239-250. doi: 10.26464/epp2021031

[2]

ZhongLei Gao, ZhenPeng Su, FuLiang Xiao, HuiNan Zheng, YuMing Wang, Shui Wang, H. E. Spence, G. D. Reeves, D. N. Baker, J. B. Blake, H. O. Funsten, 2018: Exohiss wave enhancement following substorm electron injection in the dayside magnetosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 359-370. doi: 10.26464/epp2018033

[3]

EunJin Jang, Chao Yue, QiuGang Zong, SuiYan Fu, HaoBo Fu, 2021: The effect of non-storm time substorms on the ring current dynamics, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 251-258. doi: 10.26464/epp2021032

[4]

MoRan Liu, Chen Zhou, Ting Feng, Xiang Wang, ZhengYu Zhao, 2022: Numerical study on matching conditions of Langmuir parametric instability and the formation of Langmuir turbulence in ionospheric heating, Earth and Planetary Physics, 6, 474-486. doi: 10.26464/epp2022043

[5]

XiaoXin Zhang, Fei He, Bo Chen, Chao Shen, HuaNing Wang, 2017: Correlations between plasmapause evolutions and auroral signatures during substorms observed by Chang’e-3 EUV Camera, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 35-43. doi: 10.26464/epp2017005

[6]

Zheng Ma, Yun Gong, ShaoDong Zhang, JiaHui Luo, QiHou Zhou, ChunMing Huang, KaiMing Huang, 2020: Comparison of stratospheric evolution during the major sudden stratospheric warming events in 2018 and 2019, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 493-503. doi: 10.26464/epp2020044

[7]

TianYu Zheng, YongHong Duan, WeiWei Xu, YinShuang Ai, 2017: A seismic model for crustal structure in North China Craton, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 26-34. doi: 10.26464/epp2017004

[8]

TianJun Zhou, Bin Wang, YongQiang Yu, YiMin Liu, WeiPeng Zheng, LiJuan Li, Bo Wu, PengFei Lin, Zhun Guo, WenMin Man, Qing Bao, AnMin Duan, HaiLong Liu, XiaoLong Chen, Bian He, JianDong Li, LiWei Zou, XiaoCong Wang, LiXia Zhang, Yong Sun, WenXia Zhang, 2018: The FGOALS climate system model as a modeling tool for supporting climate sciences: An overview, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 276-291. doi: 10.26464/epp2018026

[9]

QingHua Zhou, YunXiang Chen, FuLiang Xiao, Sai Zhang, Si Liu, Chang Yang, YiHua He, ZhongLei Gao, 2022: A machine-learning-based electron density (MLED) model in the inner magnetosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 6, 350-358. doi: 10.26464/epp2022036

[10]

YaoKun Li, JiPing Chao, 2022: A two-dimensional energy balance climate model on Mars, Earth and Planetary Physics, 6, 284-293. doi: 10.26464/epp2022026

[11]

LiSheng Xu, Xu Zhang, ChunLai Li, 2018: Which velocity model is more suitable for the 2017 MS7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake?, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 163-169. doi: 10.26464/epp2018016

[12]

Xu Zhang, Zhen Fu, LiSheng Xu, ChunLai Li, Hong Fu, 2019: The 2018 MS 5.9 Mojiang Earthquake: Source model and intensity based on near-field seismic recordings, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 268-281. doi: 10.26464/epp2019028

[13]

Zhi Wei, Li Zhao, 2019: Lg-Q model and its implication on high-frequency ground motion for earthquakes in the Sichuan and Yunnan region, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 526-536. doi: 10.26464/epp2019054

[14]

Jingnan Guo, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Mateja Dumbović, Bernd Heber, YuMing Wang, 2020: A new model describing Forbush Decreases at Mars: combining the heliospheric modulation and the atmospheric influence, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 62-72. doi: 10.26464/epp2020007

[15]

JingZhi Wang, Qi Zhu, XuDong Gu, Song Fu, JianGuang Guo, XiaoXin Zhang, Juan Yi, YingJie Guo, BinBin Ni, Zheng Xiang, 2020: An empirical model of the global distribution of plasmaspheric hiss based on Van Allen Probes EMFISIS measurements, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 246-265. doi: 10.26464/epp2020034

[16]

XinZhou Li, ZhaoJin Rong, JiaWei Gao, Yong Wei, Zhen Shi, Tao Yu, WeiXing Wan, 2020: A local Martian crustal field model: Targeting the candidate landing site of the 2020 Chinese Mars Rover, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 420-428. doi: 10.26464/epp2020045

[17]

DianJun Zhang, WenLong Liu, Zhao Zhang, 2023: Validation of the use of THEMIS-B and THEMIS-C as a near-Earth solar wind monitor, Earth and Planetary Physics. doi: 10.26464/epp2023003

[18]

Paul Gautier Kamto, Cyrille Mezoue Adiang, Severin Nguiya, Joseph Kamguia, Loudi Yap, 2020: Refinement of Bouguer anomalies derived from the EGM2008 model, impact on gravimetric signatures in mountainous region: Case of Cameroon Volcanic Line, Central Africa, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 639-650. doi: 10.26464/epp2020065

[19]

WeiJia Sun, Liang Zhao, Yong Wei, Li-Yun Fu, 2019: Detection of seismic events on Mars: a lunar perspective, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 290-297. doi: 10.26464/epp2019030

[20]

Qiang Zhang, QingSong Liu, 2018: Changes in diffuse reflectance spectroscopy properties of hematite in sediments from the North Pacific Ocean and implications for eolian dust evolution history, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 342-350. doi: 10.26464/epp2018031

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)
Catalog

Figures And Tables

Observation evidence for the entropy switch model of substorm onset

YunXiang Song, ChuXin Chen