Advanced Search



ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Yue, X. A., Wan, W. X., Xiao, H., Zeng, L. Q., Ke, C. H., Ning, B. Q., Ding, F., Zhao, B. Q., Jin, L., Li, C., Li, M. Y., Wang, J. Y., Hao, H. L. and Zhang, N. (2020). Preliminary experimental results by the prototype of Sanya Incoherent Scatter Radar. Earth Planet. Phys., 4(6), 579–587.

2020, 4(6): 579-587. doi: 10.26464/epp2020063


Preliminary experimental results by the prototype of Sanya Incoherent Scatter Radar


Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China


Innovation Academy for Earth Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China


Beijing National Observatory of Space Environment, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China


College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China


Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology, Nanjing 210039, China

Corresponding author: XinAn Yue, Zeng,

Received Date: 2020-05-26
Web Publishing Date: 2020-08-27

In the past decades, the Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful instruments for ionosphere monitoring. The Institute of Geology and Geophysics at the Chinese Academy of Sciences was founded to build a state-of-the-art phased-array ISR at Sanya (18.3°N, 109.6°E), a low-latitude station on Hainan Island, named the Sanya ISR (SYISR). As a first step, a prototype radar system consisting of eight subarrays (SYISR-8) was built to reduce the technical risk of producing the entire large array. In this work, we have summarized the preliminary experimental results based on the SYISR-8. The amplitude and phase among 256 channels were first calibrated through an embedded internal monitoring network. The mean oscillation of the amplitude and phase after calibration were about 1 dB and 5°, respectively, which met the basic requirements. The beam directivity was confirmed by crossing screen of the International Space Station. The SYISR-8 was further used to detect the tropospheric wind profile and meteors. The derived winds were evaluated by comparison with independent radiosonde and balloon-based GPS measurements. The SYISR-8 was able to observe several typical meteor echoes, such as the meteor head echo, range-spread trail echo, and specular trail echo. These results confirmed the validity and reliability of the SYISR-8 system, thereby reducing the technical risk of producing the entire large array of the SYISR to some extent.

Key words: incoherent scatter radar, SYISR, ionosphere, phased array, beam direction, tropospheric wind, meteor

Benjamin, S. G., Schwartz, B. E., Szoke, E. J., and Koch, S. E. (2004). The value of wind profiler data in U.S. weather forecasting. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 85(12), 1871–1886.

Bowles, K. L. (1958). Observation of vertical-incidence scatter from the ionosphere at 41 Mc/sec. Phys. Rev. Lett., 1(12), 454–455.

Cohen, M. H. (2009). Genesis of the 1000-foot Arecibo dish. J. Astron. Hist. Heritage, 12(2), 141–152.

Ding, Z. H., Wu, J., Xu, Z. W., Xu, B., and Dai, L. D. (2018). The Qujing incoherent scatter radar: system description and preliminary measurements. Earth, Planets and Space, 70(1), 87.

Dougherty, J. P., and Farley, D. T. (1960). A theory of incoherent scattering of radio waves by a plasma. Proc. Roy. Soc. A, 259(1296), 79–99.

Dyrud, L. P., Oppenheim, M. M., Close, S., and Hunt, S. (2002). Interpretation of non-specular radar meteor trails. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(21), 2012.

Fukao, S., Sato, T., Tsuda, T., Kato, S., Wakasugi, K., and Makihira, T. (1985). The MU radar with an active phased array system: 1. Antenna and power amplifiers. Radio Sci., 20(6), 1155–1168.

Fulton, C., and Chappell, W. (2009). Calibration techniques for digital phased arrays. In Proceedings of 2009 IEEE International Conference on Microwaves, Communications, Antennas and Electronics Systems (pp. 1-10). Tel Aviv, Israel: IEEE.

Gordon, W. E. (1958). Incoherent scattering of radio waves by free electrons with applications to space exploration by radar. Proc. IRE, 46(11), 1824–1829.

Hagfors, T. (1961). Density fluctuations in a plasma in a magnetic field, with applications to the ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 66(6), 1699–1712.

Kudeki, E., and Milla, M. A. (2011). Incoherent scatter spectral theories—Part I: a general framework and results for small magnetic aspect angles. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 49(1), 315–328.

Kuehnke, L. (2001). Phased array calibration procedures based on measured element patterns. In Proceedings of the 2001 11th International Conference on Antennas and Propagation (pp. 660-663). Manchester, UK: IEEE.

Lindseth, B., Brown, W. O. J., Jordan, J., Law, D., Hock, T., Cohn, S. A., and Popovic, Z. (2012). A new portable 449-MHz spaced antenna wind profiler radar. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 50(9), 3544–3553.

Liu, J. X., Yu, X., Liang, C. J., Sun, K., and Sun, H. J. (2011). Calibration method of amplitude and phase consistency of digital variable polarization radar receiving system. In Proceedings of 2011 IEEE International Conference on Microwave Technology & Computational Electromagnetics (pp. 44-47). Beijing, China: IEEE.

Mailloux, R. J. (2005). Phased Array Antenna Handbook (2nd ed). Boston: Artech House.

Mathews, J. D., Briczinski, S. J., Meisel, D. D., and Heinselman, C. J. (2008). Radio and meteor science outcomes from comparisons of meteor radar observations at AMISR poker flat, sondrestrom, and Arecibo. Earth Moon Planets, 102(1-4), 365–372.

McCrea, I., Aikio, A., Alfonsi, L., Belova, E., Buchert, S., Clilverd, M., Engler, N., Gustavsson, B., Heinselman, C., … Vierinen, J. (2015). The science case for the EISCAT_3D radar. Prog. Earth Planet. Sci., 2(1), 21.

Pellinen-Wannberg, A., and Wannberg, G. (1994). Meteor observations with the European incoherent scatter UHF radar. J. Geophys. Res., 99(A6), 11379–11390.

Röttger, J., and Liu, C. H. (1978). Partial reflection and scattering of VHF radar signals from the clear atmosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett., 5(5), 357–360.

Röttger, J., Wannberg, U. G., and van Eyken, A. P. (1995). The EISCAT scientific association and the EISCAT Svalbard radar project. J. Geomag. Geoelectr., 47(8), 669–679.

Strauch, R. G., Merritt, D. A., Moran, K. P., Earnshaw, K. B., and van de Kamp, D. (1984). The Colorado wind-profiling network. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 1(1), 37–49.<0037:TCWPN>2.0.CO;2

Thomson, J. J. (1906). Conduction of Electricity Through Gases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Valentic, T., Buonocore, J., Cousins, M., Heinselman, C., Jorgensen, J., Kelly, J., Malone, M., Nicolls, M., and van Eyken, A. (2013). AMISR the advanced modular incoherent scatter radar. In Proceedings of 2013 IEEE International Symposium on Phased Array Systems and Technology (pp. 659-663). Waltham, USA: IEEE.

Zeng, L. Q., and Yi, F. (2011). Lidar observations of Fe and Na meteor trails with high temporal resolution. J. Atmos. Solar Terr. Phys., 73(16), 2367–2372.

Zhou, Q. H., Mathews, J. D., and Nakamura, T. (2001). Implications of meteor observations by the MU radar. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(7), 1399–1402.


GuoZhu Li, BaiQi Ning, Ao Li, SiPeng Yang, XiuKuan Zhao, BiQiang Zhao, WeiXing Wan, 2018: First results of optical meteor and meteor trail irregularity from simultaneous Sanya radar and video observations, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 15-21. doi: 10.26464/epp2018002


Hao Gu, Jun Cui, ZhaoGuo He, JiaHao Zhong, 2020: A MAVEN investigation of O++ in the dayside Martian ionosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 11-16. doi: 10.26464/epp2020009


XiaoShu Wu, Jun Cui, YuTian Cao, WeiQin Sun, Qiong Luo, BinBin Ni, 2020: Response of photoelectron peaks in the Martian ionosphere to solar EUV/X-ray irradiance, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 390-395. doi: 10.26464/epp2020035


H. Takahashi, P. Essien, C. A. O. B. Figueiredo, C. M. Wrasse, D. Barros, M. A. Abdu, Y. Otsuka, K. Shiokawa, GuoZhu Li, 2021: Multi-instrument study of longitudinal wave structures for plasma bubble seeding in the equatorial ionosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 368-377. doi: 10.26464/epp2021047


JunYi Wang, XinAn Yue, Yong Wei, WeiXing Wan, 2018: Optimization of the Mars ionospheric radio occultation retrieval, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 292-302. doi: 10.26464/epp2018027


Jun Cui, ZhaoJin Rong, Yong Wei, YuMing Wang, 2020: Recent investigations of the near-Mars space environment by the planetary aeronomy and space physics community in China, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 1-3. doi: 10.26464/epp2020001


QianQian Han, Markus Fraenz, Yong Wei, Eduard Dubinin, Jun Cui, LiHui Chai, ZhaoJin Rong, WeiXing Wan, Yoshifumi Futaana, 2020: EUV-dependence of Venusian dayside ionopause altitude: VEX and PVO observations, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 73-81. doi: 10.26464/epp2020011


LiBo Liu, WeiXing Wan, 2020: Recent ionospheric investigations in China (2018–2019), Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 179-205. doi: 10.26464/epp2020028


Cristiano Max Wrasse, Cosme Alexandre Oliveira Barros Figueiredo, Diego Barros, Hisao Takahashi, Alexander José Carrasco, Luiz Fillip Rodrigues Vital, Láysa Cristina Araujo Resende, Fábio Egito, Geângelo de Matos Rosa, Antonio Hélder Rodrigues Sampaio, 2021: Interaction between Equatorial Plasma Bubbles and a Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance, observed by OI 630 nm airglow imaging at Bom Jesus de Lapa, Brazil, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 397-406. doi: 10.26464/epp2021045


Yuichi Otsuka, Atsuki Shinbori, Takuya Sori, Takuya Tsugawa, Michi Nishioka, Joseph D. Huba, 2021: Plasma depletions lasting into daytime during the recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm in May 2017: Analysis and simulation of GPS total electron content observations, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 427-434. doi: 10.26464/epp2021046


YuanZheng Wen, Dan Tao, GuangXue Wang, JiaYi Zong, JinBin Cao, Roberto Battiston, ZhiMa ZeRen, XuHui Shen, 2022: Ionospheric TEC and plasma anomalies possibly associated with the 14 July 2019 Mw7.2 Indonesia Laiwui earthquake, from analysis of GPS and CSES data, Earth and Planetary Physics, 6, 313-328. doi: 10.26464/epp2022028


BaoZhu Zhou, XiangHui Xue, Wen Yi, HaiLun Ye, Jie Zeng, JinSong Chen, JianFei Wu, TingDi Chen, XianKang Dou, 2022: A comparison of MLT wind between meteor radar chain data and SD-WACCM results, Earth and Planetary Physics, 6, 451-464. doi: 10.26464/epp2022040


Jun Wu, Jian Wu, I. Haggstrom, Tong Xu, ZhengWen Xu, YanLi Hu, 2022: Incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observations of high-frequency enhanced ion and plasma lines induced by X/O mode pumping around the critical altitude, Earth and Planetary Physics, 6, 305-312. doi: 10.26464/epp2022038


Wen Yi, XiangHui Xue, JinSong Chen, TingDi Chen, Na Li, 2019: Quasi-90-day oscillation observed in the MLT region at low latitudes from the Kunming meteor radar and SABER, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 136-146. doi: 10.26464/epp2019013


Yun Gong, Zheng Ma, Chun Li, XieDong Lv, ShaoDong Zhang, QiHou Zhou, ChunMing Huang, KaiMing Huang, You Yu, GuoZhu Li, 2020: Characteristics of the quasi-16-day wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region as revealed by meteor radar, Aura satellite, and MERRA2 reanalysis data from 2008 to 2017, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 274-284. doi: 10.26464/epp2020033


Xiang Wang, Chen Zhou, Tong Xu, Farideh Honary, Michael Rietveld, Vladimir Frolov, 2019: Stimulated electromagnetic emissions spectrum observed during an X-mode heating experiment at the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 391-399. doi: 10.26464/epp2019042


YuTian Cao, Jun Cui, BinBin Ni, XiaoShu Wu, Qiong Luo, ZhaoGuo He, 2020: Bidirectional electron conic observations for photoelectrons in the Martian ionosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 403-407. doi: 10.26464/epp2020037


Xing Li, WeiXing Wan, JinBin Cao, ZhiPeng Ren, 2020: The source of tropospheric tides, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 449-460. doi: 10.26464/epp2020049


MeiJuan Yao, Jun Cui, XiaoShu Wu, YingYing Huang, WenRui Wang, 2019: Variability of the Martian ionosphere from the MAVEN Radio Occultation Science Experiment, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 283-289. doi: 10.26464/epp2019029


Zhou Tang, Dong Guo, YuCheng Su, ChunHua Shi, ChenXi Zhang, Yu Liu, XiangDong Zheng, WenWen Xu, JianJun Xu, RenQiang Liu, WeiLiang Li, 2019: Double cores of the Ozone Low in the vertical direction over the Asian continent in satellite data sets, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 93-101. doi: 10.26464/epp2019011

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)

Figures And Tables

Preliminary experimental results by the prototype of Sanya Incoherent Scatter Radar

XinAn Yue, WeiXing Wan, Han Xiao, LingQi Zeng, ChangHai Ke, BaiQi Ning, Feng Ding, BiQiang Zhao, Lin Jin, Chen Li, MingYuan Li, JunYi Wang, HongLian Hao, Ning Zhang