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ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Kong, L. G., Zhang, A. B., Tian. Z., Zheng, X. Z., Wang, W. J., Liu, B., Wurz, P., Piazza, D., Etter, A., Su, B., An, Y. Y., Ding, J. J., Li, W. Y., Liu, Y., Li, L., Li, Y. R., Tan, X. and Sun Y. Q. (2020). Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA) for Chinese Mars Exploration Mission (Tianwen-1): Design and ground calibration. Earth Planet. Phys., 4(4), 333–344doi: 10.26464/epp2020053

2020, 4(4): 333-344. doi: 10.26464/epp2020053


Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA) for Chinese Mars Exploration Mission (Tianwen-1): Design and ground calibration


National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China


Beijing Key Laboratory of Space Environment Exploration, Beijing 100190, China


Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Space Environment Situational Awareness, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China


University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China


Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern 3012, Switzerland


State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Beijing 100190, China


University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China


National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China

Corresponding author: LingGao Kong, Zhang,

Received Date: 2020-05-26
Web Publishing Date: 2020-07-31

The main objective of the Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA) aboard the Chinese Mars Exploration Mission (Tianwen-1) is to study the solar wind–Mars interaction by measuring the ions and energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) near Mars. The MINPA integrates ion and ENA measurements into one sensor head, sharing the same electronics box. The MINPA utilizes a standard toroidal top-hat electrostatic analyzer (ESA) followed by a time of flight (TOF) unit to provide measurement of ions with energies from 2.8 eV to 25.9 keV and ENAs from 50 eV to 3 keV with a base time resolution of 4 seconds. Highly polished silicon single crystal substrates with an Al2O3 film coating are used to ionize the ENAs into positive ions. These ions can then be analyzed by the ESA and TOF, to determine the energy and masses of the ENAs. The MINPA provides a 360°×90° field of view (FOV) with 22.5°×5.4° angular resolution for ion measurement, and a 360°×9.7° FOV with 22.5°×9.7° angular resolution for ENA measurement. The TOF unit combines a –15 kV acceleration high voltage with ultra-thin carbon foils to resolve H+, He2+, He+, O+, O2+ and CO2+ for ion measurement and to resolve H and O (≥ 16 amu group) for ENA measurement. Here we present the design principle and describe our ground calibration of the MINPA.

Key words: Mars, ion, energetic neutral atom, electrostatic analyzer, time of flight

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Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA) for Chinese Mars Exploration Mission (Tianwen-1): Design and ground calibration

LingGao Kong, AiBing Zhang, Zhen Tian, XiangZhi Zheng, WenJing Wang, Bin Liu, Peter Wurz, Daniele Piazza, Adrian Etter, Bin Su, YaYa An, JianJing Ding, WenYa Li, Yong Liu, Lei Li, YiRen Li, Xu Tan, YueQiang Sun