The electromagnetic satellite Zhangheng 01 (ZH-01) was successfully launched on February 2, 2018. The GNSS Radio Occultation (GRO) receiver on board the satellite is able to observe the occultation events of GPS and BeiDou navigation satellites. We analyzed the data acquired during the in-orbit testing period. We concludes that the GRO ionosphere inversion results are reasonable, the trend is correct, the satellite can observe about 600 ionosphere occultation events each day. The global coverage of more than 30000 consecutive GRO events in more than two months were analyzed and compared with COSMIC observations: both the GRO and COSMIC occultation can realize global coverage: the NmF2 and HmF2 global distributions are similar and change obviously with latitude. We used three digisondes at different latitudes to analyze and compare the spatio-temporally consistent GRO data: the RMSE of GRO NmF2 relative to digisonde is better than 9.41%, the correlation coefficient is better than 0.8682: the relative RMSE of HmF2 is better than 7.80% and the correlation coefficient is better than 0.7066.
Polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE) are observed simultaneously with Digisonde and EISCAT VHF radar. The phenomenon of irregular Es layers is called PMSE-like or PMSE-Es (Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes-Es) and has some relationship with real PMSE. In this paper, the characteristics of irregular Es layers at 80–100 km were observed by Digisonde at Tromsø during 2003–2014 are statistically analyzed with ionograms. The diurnal, day-to-day and year-to-year variations and discrepancies of occurrence rate between PMSE and PMSE-Es are compared with the statistical results observed by Esrange MST radar (ESRAD), and the reasons are discussed. The results show that the trends in the occurrence rate of PMSE-Es are similar to the trends in the occurrence rate of PMSE, but there are some notable differences. The occurrence rate of PMSE-Es is much lower than the occurrence rate of PMSE. The minimum value of PMSE-Es appears 1–2 hours earlier than the minimum value of the PMSE occurrence rate, while PMSE-Es appear earlier than PMSE in the year. In addition, there is a significant positive correlation between the annual average occurrence rates of PMSE and PMSE-Es. PMSE-Es is a relatively important occurrence in the polar mesopause. Analysis of its characteristics can provide new ideas and methods for studying the formation mechanism of PMSE.