The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite, launched into orbit from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre on February 2nd, 2018 , is China’s first space satellite dedicated to geophysical exporation. The satellite carries eight scientific payloads including high-precision magnetometers to detect electromagnetic changes in space, in particular changes associated with global earthquake disasters. In order to encourage and facilitate use by geophysical scientists of data from the satellite’s payloads, this paper introduces the application systems developed for the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite by the Institute of Crustal Dynamics, China Earthquake Administration; these include platform construction, data classification, data storage, data format, and data access and acquisition.
The CSES (China seismic electromagnetic satellite) was launched on February 2, 2018 in a circular polar orbit at an altitude of ~507 km. One of the main objectives of CSES is to search for and characterize ionospheric perturbations that can be associated with seismic activities, to better understand the generation mechanism of such perturbations. Its scientific payload can measure a broad frequency range of electromagnetic waves and some important plasma parameters. This paper is a first-hand study of unusual observations recorded by the CSES over seismic regions prior to four earthquakes with M >7.0 since the satellite's launch. CSES detectors measured irregularities near the epicenter of these four earthquakes. It is already clear that data from instruments onboard the CSES will be of significant help in studies of characteristics of ionospheric perturbations related to earthquakes and their generation mechanisms.
The high energetic particle package (HEPP) on-board the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) was launched on February 2, 2018. This package includes three independent detectors: HEPP-H, HEPP-L, and HEPP-X. HEPP-H and HEPP-L can detect energetic electrons from 100 keV to approximately 50 MeV and protons from 2 MeV to approximately 200 MeV. HEPP-X can measure solar X-rays in the energy range from 1 keV to approximately 20 keV. The objective of the HEPP payload was to provide a survey of energetic particles with high energy, pitch angle, and time resolutions in order to gain new insight into the space radiation environments of the near-Earth system. Particularly, the HEPP can provide new measurements of the magnetic storm related precipitation of electrons in the slot region, and the dynamics of radiation belts. In this paper, the HEPP scientific data sets are described and initial results are provided. The scientific data can show variations in the flux of energetic particles during magnetic storms.
Doubly charged positive ions (dications) are an important component of planetary ionospheres because of the large energy required for their formation. Observations of these ions are exceptionally difficult due to their low abundances; until now, only atomic dications have been detected. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measurements made on board the recent Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission provide the first opportunity for decisive detection of molecular dications, CO2++ in this case, in a planetary upper atmosphere. The NGIMS data reveal a dayside averaged CO2++ distribution declining steadily from 5.6 cm−3 at 160 km to below 1 cm−3 above 200 km. The dominant CO2++ production mechanisms are double photoionization of CO2 below 190 km and single photoionization of CO2+ at higher altitudes; CO2++ destruction is dominated by natural dissociation, but reactions with atmospheric CO2 and O become important below 160 km. Simplified photochemical model calculations are carried out and reasonably reproduce the data at low altitudes within a factor of 2 but underestimate the data at high altitudes by a factor of 4. Finally, we report a much stronger solar control of the CO2++ density than of the CO2+ density .
Previous studies have reported that, before or after occurrences of strong earthquakes, some low earth orbit satellites recorded ionospheric disturbances, including electromagnetic emissions and plasma fluctuations over the epicenter region or its conjugate point. Theoretically speaking, due to some electromagnetic coupling effect, electromagnetic emissions from the earthquake preparation zone could propagate from the lithosphere to the atmosphere, and could reach the ionosphere, even up to the inner magnetosphere. This paper introduces the electric field detector (EFD) onboard the ZhangHeng-1 satellite (ZH-1). The EFD is designed to measure electric field fluctuations within the broad frequency range of DC to 3.5 MHz, divided into 4 channels: ULF (DC–16 Hz), ELF (6 Hz–2.2 kHz), VLF (1.8 kHz–20 kHz) and HF (18 kHz–3.5 MHz). The sampling rates of the channels are 125 Hz, 5 kHz, 50 kHz and 10 MHz, respectively. The EFD includes 4 spherical probes mounted on a over 4.5 m boom and an electronic box inside the satellite module. The resolution of the EFD is 1 μV·m-1·Hz-1/2 at frequencies from DC to 16 Hz, and the sensitivity is 0.1 μV·m-1·Hz-1/2 at frequencies from 6 Hz to 2.2 kHz, 0.05 μV·m-1·Hz-1/2 in the band 1.8 kHz to 20 kHz, and 0.1μV·m-1·Hz-1/2 from 20 kHz to 3.5 MHz. The dynamic range from DC to 20 kHz is over 120 dB, and over 96 dB from 20 kHz to 3.5 MHz. The EFD has two observation modes: survey mode and burst mode. The survey mode concentrates primarily on electric field power density values; the burst mode provides high sampling rate waveform data. The detailed configuration of the EFD onboard the ZH-1 is also introduced in this paper. During the six months’ orbit test phase, the EFD recorded a number of natural electromagnetic emissions. Preliminary analysis of these data suggests that the EFD performs well onboard the ZH-1 and is meeting the requirements of the scientific objectives of ZH-1.
Four levels of the data from the search coil magnetometer (SCM) onboard the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES) are defined and described. The data in different levels all contain three components of the waveform and/or spectrum of the induced magnetic field around the orbit in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 20 kHz; these are divided into an ultra-low-frequency band (ULF, 10–200 Hz), an extremely low frequency band (ELF, 200–2200 Hz), and a very low frequency band (VLF, 1.8–20 kHz). Examples of data products for Level-2, Level-3, and Level-4 are presented. The initial results obtained in the commission test phase demonstrated that the SCM was in a normal operational status and that the data are of high enough quality to reliably capture most space weather events related to low-frequency geomagnetic disturbances.
The Langmuir Probe (LAP), onboard the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), has been designed for in situ measurements of bulk parameters of the ionosphere plasma, the first Chinese application of in-situ measurement technology in the field of space exploration. The two main parameters measured by LAP are electron density and temperature. In this paper, a brief description of the LAP and its work mode are provided. Based on characteristics of the LAP, and assuming an ideal plasma environment, we introduce in detail a method used to invert the I-V curve; the data products that can be accessed by users are shown. Based on the LAP data available, this paper reports that events such as earthquakes and magnetic storms are preceded and followed by obvious abnormal changes. We suggest that LAP could provide a valuable data set for studies of space weather, seismic events, and the ionospheric environment.