Climate system models are useful tools for understanding the interactions among the components of the climate system and predicting/projecting future climate change. The development of climate models has been a central focus of the State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (LASG/IAP) since the establishment of the laboratory in 1985. In China, many pioneering component models and fully coupled models of the climate system have been developed by LASG/IAP. The fully coupled climate system developed in the recent decade is named FGOALS (Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model). In this paper, an application-oriented review of the LASG/IAP FGOALS model is presented. The improved model performances are demonstrated in the context of cloud-radiation processes, Asian monsoon, ENSO phenomena, Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and sea ice. The FGOALS model has contributed to both CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-phase 5) and IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) AR5 (the Fifth Assessment Report). The release of FGOALS data has supported the publication of nearly 500 papers around the world. The results of FGOALS are cited ~106 times in the IPCC WG1 (Working Group 1) AR5. In addition to the traditional long-term simulations and projections, near-term decadal climate prediction is a new set of CMIP experiment, progress of LAGS/IAP in the development of near-term decadal prediction system is reviewed. The FGOALS model has supported many Chinese national-level research projects and contributed to the national climate change assessment report. The crucial role of FGOALS as a modeling tool for supporting climate sciences is highlighted by demonstrating the model’s performances in the simulation of the evolution of Earth’s climate from the past to the future.
For the first time, the effect of ions on complex conductivity and permittivity of dusty plasma at Polar Mesosphere Summer Echoes (PMSE) altitude is analyzed. Because of ions higher mass and smaller thermal velocity, generally, their effects are not considered in the study of electromagnetic properties of dusty plasmas. In this study, we modified the equations of conductivity and permittivity by adding the effect of ions. In the PMSE altitude region between 80 and 90 km, a local reduction in electron density (i.e., an electron bite-out), is produced by electron absorption onto dust particles. The bite-out condition contains high dust density and smaller electron density. From simulation results in comparatively strong bite-out conditions, we found that the ion effects on conductivity become significant with smaller dust size, lower electron temperature, and lower neutral density. For comparatively weak bite-out conditions, the ion effects on conductivity become significant with larger dust size, higher electron temperature, and higher neutral density. On the other hand, for different dust sizes, electron temperatures and neutral density, the ion effects on complex permittivity become significant only in very strong bite-out conditions. Based on these simulation results, we conclude that, in the absence of electron bite-out conditions, the effect of ions on complex conductivity and permittivity is not significant and can be ignored. However, during bite-out conditions, the effect of ions becomes significant and cannot be ignored because it significantly changes the conductivity and permittivity of dusty plasmas.