The main objective of the Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA) aboard the Chinese Mars Exploration Mission (Tianwen-1) is to study the solar wind–Mars interaction by measuring the ions and energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) near Mars. The MINPA integrates ion and ENA measurements into one sensor head, sharing the same electronics box. The MINPA utilizes a standard toroidal top-hat electrostatic analyzer (ESA) followed by a time of flight (TOF) unit to provide measurement of ions with energies from 2.8 eV to 25.9 keV and ENAs from 50 eV to 3 keV with a base time resolution of 4 seconds. Highly polished silicon single crystal substrates with an Al2O3 film coating are used to ionize the ENAs into positive ions. These ions can then be analyzed by the ESA and TOF, to determine the energy and masses of the ENAs. The MINPA provides a 360°×90° field of view (FOV) with 22.5°×5.4° angular resolution for ion measurement, and a 360°×9.7° FOV with 22.5°×9.7° angular resolution for ENA measurement. The TOF unit combines a –15 kV acceleration high voltage with ultra-thin carbon foils to resolve H+, He2+, He+, O+, O2+ and CO2+ for ion measurement and to resolve H and O (≥ 16 amu group) for ENA measurement. Here we present the design principle and describe our ground calibration of the MINPA.
As one of the seven scientific payloads on board the Tianwen-1 orbiter, the Mars Orbiter Magnetometer (MOMAG) will measure the magnetic fields of and surrounding Mars to study its space environment and the interaction with the solar wind. The instrument consists of two identical triaxial fluxgate magnetometer sensors, mounted on a 3.19 meter-long boom with a seperation of about 90 cm. The dual-magnetometers configuration will help eliminate the magnetic field interference generated by the spacecraft platform and payloads. The sensors are controlled by an electric box mounted inside the orbiter. Each magnetometer measures the ambient vector magnetic field over a wide dynamic range (to 10,000 nT per axis) with a resolution of 1.19 pT. Both magnetometers sample the ambient magnetic field at an intrinsic frequency of 128 Hz, but will operate in a model with alternating frequency between 1 and 32 Hz to meet telemetry allocations.