The background and scientific objectives of the Mars Climate Station (MCS) for Tianwen-1 are introduced, accompanied by a comparative review of the status of related meteorological observation missions and of advanced sensing technologies. As one of the China Tianwen-1 Mission’s principal scientific payloads, the MCS contains four measurement sensors and one electronic processing unit that are specially designed to measure local temperature, pressure, wind, and sound on the Martian surface. The MCS’s measurement principles, technical schemes, ground calibration techniques, and adaptability evaluation to the Mars surface environment of MCS are introduced in details. The conclusion presents measurement performance specifications of the MCS, based on ground test results, that will provide guidance to future research based on data from the Tianwen-1 and later Mars missions.
The main objective of the Mars Ion and Neutral Particle Analyzer (MINPA) aboard the Chinese Mars Exploration Mission (Tianwen-1) is to study the solar wind–Mars interaction by measuring the ions and energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) near Mars. The MINPA integrates ion and ENA measurements into one sensor head, sharing the same electronics box. The MINPA utilizes a standard toroidal top-hat electrostatic analyzer (ESA) followed by a time of flight (TOF) unit to provide measurement of ions with energies from 2.8 eV to 25.9 keV and ENAs from 50 eV to 3 keV with a base time resolution of 4 seconds. Highly polished silicon single crystal substrates with an Al2O3 film coating are used to ionize the ENAs into positive ions. These ions can then be analyzed by the ESA and TOF, to determine the energy and masses of the ENAs. The MINPA provides a 360°×90° field of view (FOV) with 22.5°×5.4° angular resolution for ion measurement, and a 360°×9.7° FOV with 22.5°×9.7° angular resolution for ENA measurement. The TOF unit combines a –15 kV acceleration high voltage with ultra-thin carbon foils to resolve H+, He2+, He+, O+, O2+ and CO2+ for ion measurement and to resolve H and O (≥ 16 amu group) for ENA measurement. Here we present the design principle and describe our ground calibration of the MINPA.