The Neogene Terror Rift in the Antarctic Victoria Land Basin (VLB) of the Ross Sea, Antarctica, is composed of the Discovery Graben and the Lee Arch. Many Neogene volcanoes are aligned in the north-south direction in the southern VLB, belonging to the McMurdo Volcanic Group. However, due to multiple glaciations and limited seismic data, the volcanic processes are still unclear in the northern VLB, especially in the Terror Rift. Multichannel seismic profiles were collected at the VLB from the 32nd Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). We utilized four seismic profiles from the CHINARE and additional historical profiles, along with gravity and magnetic anomalies, to analyze faults and stratigraphic characteristics in the northern Terror Rift and volcanism in the VLB. Negative flower structures found in the northern Terror Rift suggest that the Terror Rift was affected by dextral strike-slip faults extending from the northern Victoria Land (NVL). After the initial orthogonal tension, the rift transited into an oblique extension, forming a set of downward concaving normal faults and accommodation zones in the Terror Rift. On the Lee Arch, several imbricated normal faults formed and converged into a detachment fault. Under gravitational forces, the strata bent upward and formed a rollover anticline. Many deep faults and thin strata subjected to erosion facilitated volcanic activity. A brittle volcanic region in the VLB was affected by dextral strike-slip movements and east-west extension, resulting in two Neogene volcanic chains that connect three igneous provinces in the VLB: the Hallett, Melbourne, and Erebus Provinces. These two chains contain mud volcanoes with magnetic nuclei, volcanic intrusions, and late-stage volcanic eruptions. Volcanisms have brought about opposite polarities of magnetic anomalies in Antarctica, indicating the occurrence of multiple volcanic activities.