Advanced Search

EPP

地球与行星物理

ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Jing Huang, Meng Zhou, HuiMin Li, XiaoHua Deng, Jiang Liu, ShiYong Huang, 2019: Small-scale dipolarization fronts in the Earth′s magnetotail, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 358-364. http://doi.org/10.26464/epp2019036

2019, 3(4): 358-364. doi: 10.26464/epp2019036

SPACE PHYSICS: MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS

Small-scale dipolarization fronts in the Earth′s magnetotail

1. 

Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, China

2. 

School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, Xi’an 710071, China

3. 

Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA

4. 

School of Electronic and Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China

Corresponding author: Meng Zhou, mengzhou@ncu.edu.cn

Received Date: 2019-01-02
Web Publishing Date: 2019-05-22

Previous studies suggest that dipolarization fronts (DFs) are 1 to 3RE (RE is the earth radius) wide in the dawn-dusk direction. Recent kinetic simulations have found that DFs may break up into small-scale structures after they are produced by reconnection. Motivated by this simulation, we revisited the scale size of DFs in the dawn-dusk direction by using Cluster observations during the years when the inter-distance among Cluster spacecraft was between 1000 and 2000 km. We selected the DFs that were detected by more than one spacecraft and estimated the radii of these DFs by a simple geometrical analysis, which is based on comparison of DF normals observed by different spacecraft. We found a few DFs that were only a few ion inertial lengths in the dawn-dusk direction. These results point out the importance of multi-scale coupling during the evolution of DFs.

Key words: dipolarization front, small scale, Earth's magnetotail

Angelopoulos, V., Runov, A., Zhou, X. Z., Turner, D. L., Kiehas, S. A., Li, S. S., and Shinohara, I. (2013). Electromagnetic energy conversion at reconnection fronts. Science, 341(6153), 1478–1482. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1236992

Ashour-Abdalla, M., El-Alaoui, M., Goldstein, M. L., Zhou, M., Schriver, D., Richard, R., Walker, R., Kivelson, M. G., and Hwang, K. J. (2011). Observations and simulations of non-local acceleration of electrons in magnetotail magnetic reconnection events. Nat. Phys., 7(4), 360–365. https://doi.org/10.1038/nphys1903

Balogh, A., Carr, C. M., Acuña, M. H., Dunlop, M. W., Beek, T. J., Brown, P., Fornacon, K. H., Georgescu, E., Glassmeier, K. H., … Schwingenschuh, K. (2001). The cluster magnetic field investigation: overview of in-flight performance and initial results. Ann. Geophys., 19(10-12), 1207–1217. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-19-1207-2001

Birn, J., Hesse, M., Nakamura, R., and Zaharia, S. (2013). Particle acceleration in dipolarization events. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 118(5), 1960–1971. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgra.50132

Deng, X. H., Ashour-Abdalla, M., Zhou, M., Walker, R., El-Alaoui, M., Angelopoulos, V., Ergun, R. E., and Schriver, D. (2010). Wave and particle characteristics of earthward electron injections associated with dipolarization fronts. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 115(A9), A09225. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009JA015107

Escoubet, C. P., Schmidt, R., and Goldstein, M. L. (1997). Cluster-science and mission overview. Space Sci. Rev., 79(1-2), 11–32. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004923124586

Fu, H. S., Khotyaintsev, Y. V., André, M., and Vaivads, A. (2011). Fermi and betatron acceleration of suprathermal electrons behind dipolarization fronts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38(16), L16104. https://doi.org/10.1029/2011GL048528

Fu, H. S., Khotyaintsev, Y. V., Vaivads, A., André, M., and Huang, S. Y. (2012a). Occurrence rate of earthward-propagating dipolarization fronts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 39(10), L10101. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051784

Fu, H. S., Khotyaintsev, Y. V., Vaivads, A., André, M., Sergeev, V. A., Huang, S. Y., Kronberg, E. A., and Daly, P. W. (2012b). Pitch angle distribution of suprathermal electrons behind dipolarization fronts: A statistical overview. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 117(A12), A12221. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JA018141

Gustafsson, G., André, M., Carozzi, T., Eriksson, A. I., Fälthammar, C.-G., Grard, R., Holmgren, G., Holtet, J. A., Ivchenko, N., … Wahlund, J. E. (2001). First results of electric field and density observations by CLUSTER EFW based on initial months of operation. Ann. Geophys., 19(10-12), 1219–1240. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-19-1219-2001

Huang, S. Y., Zhou, M., Deng, X. H., Yuan, Z. G., Pang, Y., Wei, Q., Su, W., Li, H. M., and Wang, Q. Q. (2012). Kinetic structure and wave properties associated with sharp dipolarization front observed by Cluster. Ann. Geophys., 30(1), 97–107. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-30-97-2012

Huang, S. Y., Fu, H. S., Yuan, Z. G., Zhou, M., Fu, S., Deng, X. H., Sun, W. J., Pang, Y., Wang, D. D., .. Yu, X. D. (2015a). Electromagnetic energy conversion at dipolarization fronts: Multispacecraft results. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 120(6), 4496–4502. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021083

Huang, S. Y., Fu, H. S., Vaivads, A., Yuan, Z. G., Pang, Y., Zhou, M., Khotyaintsev, Y. V., Deng, X. H., André, M., … Wang, D. D. (2015b). Dawn-dusk scale of dipolarization front in the Earth’s magnetotail: multi-cases study. Astrophys. Space Sci., 357(1), 22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10509-015-2298-3

Liu, J., Angelopoulos, V., Zhou, X. Z., Runov, A., and Yao, Z. H. (2013). On the role of pressure and flow perturbations around dipolarizing flux bundles. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 118(11), 7104–7118. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JA019256

Liu, J., Angelopoulos, V., Zhou, X. Z., and Runov, A. (2014). Magnetic flux transport by dipolarizing flux bundles. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 119(2), 909–926. https://doi.org/10.1002/2013JA019395

Liu, J., Angelopoulos, V., Zhou, X. Z., Yao, Z. H., and Runov, A. (2015). Cross-tail expansion of dipolarizing flux bundles. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 120(4), 2516–2530. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA020997

Li, H. M., Zhou, M., Deng, X. H., Yuan, Z. G., Guo, L. X., Yu, X. D., Pang, Y., and Huang, S. Y. (2015). A statistical study on the whistler waves behind dipolarization fronts. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 120(2), 1086–1095. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JA020474

Nakamura, R., Baumjohann, W., Klecker, B., Bogdanova, Y., Balogh, A., Rème, H., Bosqued, J. M., Dandouras, I., Sauvaud, J. A., .. Runov, A. (2002). Motion of the dipolarization front during a flow burst event observed by Cluster. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(20), 3-1–3-4. https://doi.org/10.1029/2002GL015763

Nakamura, R., Baumjohann, W., Mouikis, C., Kistler, L. M., Runov, A., Volwerk, M., Asano, Y., Vörös, Z., Zhang, T. L., … Balogh, A. (2004). Spatial scale of high-speed flows in the plasma sheet observed by Cluster. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(9), L09804. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004GL019558

Ohtani, S., Shay, M. A., and Mukai, T. (2004). Temporal structure of the fast convective flow in the plasma sheet: Comparison between observations and two-fluid simulations. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 109(A3), A03210. https://doi.org/10.1029/2003JA010002

Pan, D. X., Khotyaintsev, Y. V., Graham, D. B., Vaivads, A., Zhou, X. Z., André, M., Zhou, X. Z., André, M., Lindqvist, P. A., .. Burch, J. L. (2018). Rippled electron-scale structure of a dipolarization front. Geophys. Res. Lett., 45(22), 12116–12124. https://doi.org/10.1029/2018GL080826

Pedersen, A., Lybekk, B., André, M., Eriksson, A., Masson, A., Mozer, F. S., Lindqvist, P.-A., DéCréAu, P. M. E., Dandouras, I., … Whipple, E. (2008). Electron density estimations derived from spacecraft potential measurements on Cluster in tenuous plasma regions. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 113(A7), A07S33. https://doi.org/10.1029/2007JA012636

Pritchett, P. L., Coroniti, F. V., and Nishimura, Y. (2014). The kinetic ballooning/interchange instability as a source of dipolarization fronts and auroral streamers. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 119(6), 4723–4739. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JA019890

Pritchett, P. L. (2016). Three-dimensional structure and kinetic features of reconnection exhaust jets. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 121(1), 214–226. https://doi.org/10.1002/2015JA022053

Rème, H., Aoustin, C., Bosqued, J. M., Dandouras, I., Lavraud, B., Sauvaud, J. A., Barthe, A., Bouyssou, J., Camus, T., … Sonnerup, B. (2001). First multispacecraft ion measurements in and near the Earth’s magnetosphere with the identical Cluster ion spectrometry (CIS) experiment. Ann. Geophys., 19(10-12), 1303–1354. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-19-1303-2001

Runov, A., Angelopoulos, V., Sitnov, M. I., Sergeev, V. A., Bonnell, J., McFadden, J. P., Larson, D., Glassmeier, K. H., and Auster, U. (2009). THEMIS observations of an earthward-propagating dipolarization front. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(14), L14106. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL038980

Runov, A., Angelopoulos, V., Zhou, X. Z., Zhang, X. J., Li, S., Plaschke, F., and Bonnell, J. (2011). A THEMIS multicase study of dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail plasma sheet. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 116(A5), A05216. https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JA016316

Schmid, D., Volwerk, M., Nakamura, R., Baumjohann, W., and Heyn, M. (2011). A statistical and event study of magnetotail dipolarization fronts. Ann. Geophys., 29(9), 1537–1547. https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-29-1537-2011

Sergeev, V. A., Angelopoulos, V., Gosling, J. T., Cattell, C. A., and Russell, C. T. (1996). Detection of localized, plasma-depleted flux tubes or bubbles in the midtail plasma sheet. J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 101(A5), 10817–10826. https://doi.org/10.1029/96JA00460

Sonnerup, B. U. Ö., and Scheible, M. (1998). Minimum and maximum variance analysis. In G. Paschmann, et al. (Eds.), Analysis Methods for Multi-Spacecraft Data (pp. 185-22). Bern, Switzerland: International Space Science Institute.222

Vapirev, A. E., Lapenta, G., Divin, A., Markidis, S., Henri, P., Goldman, M., and Newman, D. (2013). Formation of a transient front structure near reconnection point in 3-D PIC simulations. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 118(4), 1435–1449. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgra.50136

Wang, Y., Zhou, M., and Deng, X. H. (2015). Statistical study on the suprathermal electrons properties around dipolarization fronts in Earth’s magnetotail. Sci. China Technol. Sci., 58(6), 961–966. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11431-015-5830-3

Zhou, M., Ashour-Abdalla, M., Deng, X. H., Schriver, D., El-Alaoui, M., and Pang, Y. (2009). THEMIS observation of multiple dipolarization fronts and associated wave characteristics in the near-Earth magnetotail. Geophys. Res. Lett., 36(20), L20107. https://doi.org/10.1029/2009GL040663

Zhou, M., Deng, X. H., Ashour-Abdalla, M., Walker, R., Pang, Y., Tang, C. L., Huang, S. Y., El-Alaoui, M., Yuan, Z. G., and Li, H. M. (2013). Cluster observations of kinetic structures and electron acceleration within a dynamic plasma bubble. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 118(2), 674–684. https://doi.org/10.1029/2012JA018323

Zhou, M., Ni, B. B., Huang, S. Y., Deng, X. H., Ashour-Abdalla, M., Nishimura, Y., Yuan, Z. G., Pang, Y., and Li, H. M. (2014). Observation of large-amplitude magnetosonic waves at dipolarization fronts. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 119(6), 4335–4347. https://doi.org/10.1002/2014JA019796

Zhou, M., Ashour-Abdalla, M., Deng, X. H., Pang, Y., Fu, H. S., Walker, R., Lapenta, G., Huang, S. Y., Xu, X. J., and Tang, R. X. (2017). Observation of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection in the terrestrial magnetotail. J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys., 122(9), 9513–9520. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017JA024597

[1]

ChuXin Chen, Chih-Ping Wang, 2019: Contribution of patchy reconnection to the ion-to-electron temperature ratio in the Earth's magnetotail, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 474-480. doi: 10.26464/epp2019049

[2]

ZhongHua Yao, 2017: Observations of loading-unloading process at Saturn’s distant magnetotail, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 53-57. doi: 10.26464/epp2017007

[3]

Yong Wei, XinAn Yue, ZhaoJin Rong, YongXin Pan, WeiXing Wan, RiXiang Zhu, 2017: A planetary perspective on Earth’s space environment evolution, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 63-67. doi: 10.26464/epp2017009

[4]

Hui Li, Jian Wu, 2021: Dielectric permittivity of dusty plasma in the Earth's mesosphere, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 117-120. doi: 10.26464/epp2021006

[5]

ChongJing Yuan, YiQiao Zuo, Elias Roussos, Yong Wei, YiXin Hao, YiXin Sun, Norbert Krupp, 2021: Large-scale episodic enhancements of relativistic electron intensities in Jupiter's radiation belt, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 314-326. doi: 10.26464/epp2021037

[6]

Chao Xiao, WenLong Liu, DianJun Zhang, Zhao Zhang, 2020: A normalized statistical study of Earth’s cusp region based on nine-years of Cluster measurements, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 266-273. doi: 10.26464/epp2020031

[7]

ChaoLing Tang, Xu Wang, BinBin Ni, ZhengPeng Su, JiChun Zhang, 2022: The 600 keV electron injections in the Earth’s outer radiation belt: A statistical study, Earth and Planetary Physics, 6, 149-160. doi: 10.26464/epp2022012

[8]

ChunHua Jiang, Rong Tian, LeHui Wei, GuoBin Yang, ZhengYu Zhao, 2022: Modeling of kilometer-scale ionospheric irregularities at Mars, Earth and Planetary Physics, 6, 213-217. doi: 10.26464/epp2022011

[9]

JianHui Tian, Yan Luo, Li Zhao, 2019: Regional stress field in Yunnan revealed by the focal mechanisms of moderate and small earthquakes, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 243-252. doi: 10.26464/epp2019024

[10]

ShuTao Yao, ZongShun Yue, QuanQi Shi, Alexander William Degeling, HuiShan Fu, AnMin Tian, Hui Zhang, Andrew Vu, RuiLong Guo, ZhongHua Yao, Ji Liu, Qiu-Gang Zong, XuZhi Zhou, JingHuan Li, WenYa Li, HongQiao Hu, YangYang Liu, WeiJie Sun, 2021: Statistical properties of kinetic-scale magnetic holes in terrestrial space, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 63-72. doi: 10.26464/epp2021011

[11]

YuLan Li, BaoShan Wang, RiZheng He, HongWei Zheng, JiangYong Yan, Yao Li, 2018: Fine relocation, mechanism, and tectonic indications of middle-small earthquakes in the Central Tibetan Plateau, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 406-419. doi: 10.26464/epp2018038

[12]

Wen Yang, GuoYi Chen, LingYuan Meng, Yang Zang, HaiJiang Zhang, JunLun Li, 2021: Determination of the local magnitudes of small earthquakes using a dense seismic array in the Changning−Zhaotong Shale Gas Field, Southern Sichuan Basin, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 532-546. doi: 10.26464/epp2021026

[13]

XiaoCheng Guo, YuCheng Zhou, Chi Wang, Ying D. Liu, 2021: Propagation of large-scale solar wind events in the outer heliosphere from a numerical MHD simulation, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 223-231. doi: 10.26464/epp2021024

[14]

WeiXing Wan, 2017: Earth science, planetary vision——A foreword to Earth and Planetary Physics (EPP), Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 1-1. doi: 10.26464/epp2017001

[15]

ChuXin Chen, 2021: Preservation and variation of ion-to-electron temperature ratio in the plasma sheet in geo-magnetotail, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 337-347. doi: 10.26464/epp2021035

[16]

Cristiano Max Wrasse, Cosme Alexandre Oliveira Barros Figueiredo, Diego Barros, Hisao Takahashi, Alexander José Carrasco, Luiz Fillip Rodrigues Vital, Láysa Cristina Araujo Resende, Fábio Egito, Geângelo de Matos Rosa, Antonio Hélder Rodrigues Sampaio, 2021: Interaction between Equatorial Plasma Bubbles and a Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance, observed by OI 630 nm airglow imaging at Bom Jesus de Lapa, Brazil, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 397-406. doi: 10.26464/epp2021045

[17]

Jie Dong, Gabriele Cambiotti, HanJiang Wen, Roberto Sabadini, WenKe Sun, 2021: Treatment of discontinuities inside Earth models: Effects on computed coseismic deformations, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 90-104. doi: 10.26464/epp2021010

[18]

YuMei He, LianXing Wen, Yann Capdeville, 2021: Morphology and possible origins of the Perm anomaly in the lowermost mantle of Earth, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 105-116. doi: 10.26464/epp2021009

[19]

LongHui Yuan, YuFeng Lin, Chris A. Jones, 2021: Influence of reference states on Jupiter’s dynamo simulations, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 305-313. doi: 10.26464/epp2021041

[20]

Gang Lu, Liang Zhao, Ling Chen, Bo Wan, FuYuan Wu, 2021: Reviewing subduction initiation and the origin of plate tectonics: What do we learn from present-day Earth?, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 123-140. doi: 10.26464/epp2021014

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)
Catalog

Figures And Tables

Small-scale dipolarization fronts in the Earth′s magnetotail

Jing Huang, Meng Zhou, HuiMin Li, XiaoHua Deng, Jiang Liu, ShiYong Huang