Advanced Search



ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: XueMin Zhang, Vladimir Frolov, ShuFan Zhao, Chen Zhou, YaLu Wang, Alexander Ryabov, DuLin Zhai, 2018: The first joint experimental results between SURA and CSES, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 527-537. doi: 10.26464/epp2018051

2018, 2(6): 527-537. doi: 10.26464/epp2018051


The first joint experimental results between SURA and CSES


Institute of Earthquake Forecasting, China Earthquake Administration, Beijing 100036, China


Radiophysical Research Institute, Nizhny Novgorod 603950, Russia


Department of Space Physics, School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China


Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008, Russia

Corresponding author: XueMin Zhang,

Received Date: 2018-08-13
Web Publishing Date: 2018-11-01

In June 2018, for the first time, the SURA heating facility in Russia , together with the in-orbit China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), carried out a series of experiments in emitting high frequency (HF) O-mode radio waves to disturb the ionosphere. This paper reports data from those experiments, collected onboard CSES, including electric field, in-situ plasma parameters, and energetic particle flux. Five cases are analyzed, two cases in local daytime and three in local nighttime. We find that the pumping wave frequencies f0 in local daytime were close to the critical frequency of the F2 layer foF2, but no pumping waves were detected by the electric field detector (EFD) on CSES even when the emitted power reached 90 MW, and no obvious plasma disturbances were observed from CSES in those two daytime cases. But on June 16, there existed a spread F phenomena when f0 was lower than foF2 at that local daytime period. During the three cases in local nighttime, the pumping waves were clearly distinguished in the HF-band electric field at the emitted frequency with the emitted power only 30 MW; the power spectrum density of the electric field was larger by an order of magnitude than the normal background, with the propagating radius exceeding 200 km. Due to the small foF2 over SURA in June at that local nighttime period,f0 in these three cases were significantly higher than foF2, all belonging to under-dense heating conditions. As for the plasma parameters, only an increase of about 100 K in ion temperature was observed on June 12; in the other two cases (with one orbit without plasma data on June 17), no obvious plasma disturbances were found. This first joint SURA-CSES experiment illustrates that the present orbit of CSES can cross quite close to the SURA facility, which can insure an effective heating time from SURA so that CSES can observe the perturbations at the topside ionosphere excited by SURA in the near region. The detection of plasma disturbances on June 12 with under-dense heating mode in local nighttime provides evidence for likely success of future related experiments between CSES and SURA, or with other HF facilities.

Key words: CSES satellite; SURA; ionospheric perturbations; electric field; HF pumping wave

Ambrosi, G., Bartocci, S., Basara, L., Battiston, R., Burger, W. J., Carfora, L., Castellini, G., Cipollone, P., Conti, L., … Vitale, V. (2018). The HEPD particle detector of the CSES satellite mission for investigating seismo-associated perturbations of the Van Allen belts. Sci. China:Technol. Sci., 61(5), 643–652.

Cao, J. B., Zeng, L., Zhan, F., Wang, Z. G., Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Meng, Q. C., Ji, Z. Q., Wang, P., … Ma, L. Y. (2018). The electromagnetic wave experiment for CSES mission: Search coil magnetometer. Sci. China:Technol. Sci., 61(5), 653–658.

Chen, T., Lei, J. G., and Ma, M. J. (2018). Study of the plasma performance of the EFD apparatus for the CSES mission. Planet. Space Sci., 158, 34–37.

Cheng, B. J., Zhou, B., Magnes, W., Lammegger, R., and Pollinger, A. (2018). High precision magnetometer for geomagnetic exploration onboard of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite. Sci. China:Technol. Sci., 61(5), 659–668.

Cohen, M. B., and Golkowski, M. (2013). 100 days of ELF/VLF generation via HF heating with HAARP. J. Geophys. Res., 118(10), 6597–6607.

Frolov, V. L., Bakhmet’ieva, N. V., Belikovich, V. V., Vertigradov, G. G., Vertogradov, V. G., Komrakov, G. P., Kotik, D. S., Mityakov, N. A., Polyakov, S. V., … Khudukon, B. Z. (2007). Modification of the Earth’s ionosphere by high-power high-frequency radio waves. Phys. Usp., 50(3), 315–324.

Frolov, V. L., Rapoport, V. O., Komrakov, G. P., Belov, A. S., Markov, G. A., Parrot, M., Rauch, J. L., and Mishin, E. V. (2008a). Satellite measurements of plasma-density perturbations induced in the topside ionosphere by high-power HF radio waves from the " SURA” heating facility. Radiophys. Quant. Elect., 51(11), 825–833.

Frolov, V. L., Rapoport, V. O., Komrakov, G. P., Belov, A. S., Markov, G. A., Parrot, M., Rauch, J. L., and Mishin, E. V. (2008b). Density ducts formed by heating the Earth’s ionosphere with high-power HF radio waves. JETP Lett., 88(12), 790–794.

Frolov, V. L., Rapoport, V. O., Schorokhova, E. A., Belov, A. S., Parrot, M., and Rauch, J. L. (2016). Features of the electromagnetic and plasma disturbances induced at the altitudes of the Earth’s outer ionosphere by modification of the ionospheric F2 region using high-power radio waves radiated by the SURA heating facility. Radiophys. Quant. Electr., 59(3), 177–198.

Gordon, W. E., Showen, R. L., and Carlson, H. C. (1971). Ionospheric heating at Arecibo: First tests. J. Geophys. Res., 76(31), 7808–7813.

Gurevich, A. V. (2007). Nonlinear effects in the ionosphere. Phys. Usp., 50(11), 1091–1121.

Kuznetsov, V. D., and Ruzhin, Y. Y. (2014). Anthropogenic trigger of substorms and energetic particles precipitations. Adv. Space Res., 54(12), 2549–2558.

Lin, J., Shen, X. H., Hu, L. C., Wang, L. W., and Zhu, F. Y. (2018). CSES GNSS ionospheric inversion technique, validation and error analysis. Sci. China:Technol. Sci., 61(5), 669–677.

Liu, M. R., Zhou, C., Wang, X., Huang, J., Zhao, Z. Y., and Zhang, Y. N. (2017). Study of parametric decay instability in powerful wave ionospheric heating (2): Experimental observations from EISCAT. Chinese J. Geophys.(in Chinese) , 60(11), 4377–4389.

Mantas, G. P., Carlson, H. C., and LaHoz, C. H. (1981). Thermal response of the F region ionosphere in artificial modification experiments by HF radio waves. J. Geophys. Res., 86, 561–574.

Milikh, G. M., Papadopoulos, K., Shroff, H., Chang, C. L., Wallace, T., Mishin, E. V., Parrot, M., and Berthelier, J. J. (2008). Formation of artificial ionospheric ducts. Geophys. Res. Lett., 35(17), L17104.

Piddyachiy, D., Inan, U. S., Bell, T. F., Lehtinen, N. G., and Parrot, M. (2008). DEMETER observations of an intense upgoing column of ELF/VLF radiation excited by the HAARP HF heater. J. Geophys. Res., 113(A10), A10308.

Rietveld, M., Kosch, M., Blagoveshchenskaya, N., Komienko, V., Leyser, T., and Yeoman, T. (2003). Ionospheric electron heating, optical emissions, and striations induced by powerful HF radio waves at high latitudes: Aspect angle dependence. J. Geophys. Res., 108(A4), 1141.

Shen, X. H., Zhang, X. M., Yuan, S. G., Wang, L. W., Cao, J. B., Huang, J. P., Zhu, X. H., Piergiorgio, P., and Dai, J. P. (2018). The state-of-the-art of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite mission. Sci. China:Tech. Sci., 61(5), 634–642.

Vartanyan, A., Milikh, G. M., Mishin, E., Parrot, M., Galkin, I., Reinisch, B., Huba, J., Joyce, G., and Papadopoulos, K. (2012). Artificial ducts caused by HF heating of the ionosphere by HAARP. J. Geophys. Res., 117(A10), A10307.

Zhang, X. M., Frolov, V., Zhou, C., Zhao, S. F., Ruzhin, Y., Shen, X. H., Zhima, Z., and Liu, J. (2016). Plasma perturbations HF-induced in the topside ionosphere. J. Geophys. Res., 121(10), 10052–10063.


Rui Yan, XuHui Shen, JianPing Huang, Qiao Wang, Wei Chu, DaPeng Liu, YanYan Yang, HengXin Lu, Song Xu, 2018: Examples of unusual ionospheric observations by the CSES prior to earthquakes, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 515-526. doi: 10.26464/epp2018050


YaLu Wang, XueMin Zhang, XuHui Shen, 2018: A study on the energetic electron precipitation observed by CSES, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 538-547. doi: 10.26464/epp2018052


XuHui Shen, Qiu-Gang Zong, XueMin Zhang, 2018: Introduction to special section on the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite and initial results, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 439-443. doi: 10.26464/epp2018041


JianPing Huang, JunGang Lei, ShiXun Li, ZhiMa Zeren, Cheng Li, XingHong Zhu, WeiHao Yu, 2018: The Electric Field Detector (EFD) onboard the ZH-1 satellite and first observational results, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 469-478. doi: 10.26464/epp2018045


Bin Zhou, YanYan Yang, YiTeng Zhang, XiaoChen Gou, BingJun Cheng, JinDong Wang, Lei Li, 2018: Magnetic field data processing methods of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 455-461. doi: 10.26464/epp2018043


LiBo Liu, WeiXing Wan, 2018: Chinese ionospheric investigations in 2016–2017, Earth and Planetary Physics, , 89-111. doi: 10.26464/epp2018011


Nanan Balan, LiBo Liu, HuiJun Le, 2018: A brief review of equatorial ionization anomaly and ionospheric irregularities, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 257-275. doi: 10.26464/epp2018025


JunYi Wang, XinAn Yue, Yong Wei, WeiXing Wan, 2018: Optimization of the Mars ionospheric radio occultation retrieval, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 292-302. doi: 10.26464/epp2018027


Rui Yan, YiBing Guan, XuHui Shen, JianPing Huang, XueMin Zhang, Chao Liu, DaPeng Liu, 2018: The Langmuir Probe onboard CSES: data inversion analysis method and first results, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 479-488. doi: 10.26464/epp2018046


JianHui Tian, Yan Luo, Li Zhao, 2019: Regional stress field in Yunnan revealed by the focal mechanisms of moderate and small earthquakes, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 243-252. doi: 10.26464/epp2019024


Tong Dang, JiuHou Lei, XianKang Dou, WeiXing Wan, 2017: A simulation study of 630 nm and 557.7 nm airglow variations due to dissociative recombination and thermal electrons by high-power HF heating, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 44-52. doi: 10.26464/epp2017006


JianPing Huang, XuHui Shen, XueMin Zhang, HengXin Lu, Qiao Tan, Qiao Wang, Rui Yan, Wei Chu, YanYan Yang, DaPeng Liu, Song Xu, 2018: Application system and data description of the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 444-454. doi: 10.26464/epp2018042


Yan Cheng, Jian Lin, XuHui Shen, Xiang Wan, XinXing Li, WenJun Wang, 2018: Analysis of GNSS radio occultation data from satellite ZH-01, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 499-504. doi: 10.26464/epp2018048


ZhiGao Yang, XiaoDong Song, 2019: Ambient noise Love wave tomography of China, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 218-231. doi: 10.26464/epp2019026


YuXian Wang, XiaoCheng Guo, BinBin Tang, WenYa Li, Chi Wang, 2018: Modeling the Jovian magnetosphere under an antiparallel interplanetary magnetic field from a global MHD simulation, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 303-309. doi: 10.26464/epp2018028


Elizabeth A. Silber, 2018: Deployment of a short-term geophysical field survey to monitor acoustic signals associated with the Windsor Hum, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 351-358. doi: 10.26464/epp2018032


JinQiang Zhang, Yi Liu, HongBin Chen, ZhaoNan Cai, ZhiXuan Bai, LingKun Ran, Tao Luo, Jing Yang, YiNan Wang, YueJian Xuan, YinBo Huang, XiaoQing Wu, JianChun Bian, DaRen Lu, 2019: A multi-location joint field observation of the stratosphere and troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 87-92. doi: 10.26464/epp2019017


Xu Zhang, Zhen Fu, LiSheng Xu, ChunLai Li, Hong Fu, 2019: The 2018 MS 5.9 Mojiang Earthquake: Source model and intensity based on near-field seismic recordings, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 268-281. doi: 10.26464/epp2019028


Ru Liu, YongHong Zhao, JiaYing Yang, Qi Zhang, AnDong Xu, 2019: Deformation field around a thrust fault: A comparison between laboratory results and GPS observations of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, Earth and Planetary Physics. doi: 10.26464/epp2019047


Qing Wang, XiaoDong Song, JianYe Ren, 2017: Ambient noise surface wave tomography of marginal seas in east Asia, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 13-25. doi: 10.26464/epp2017003

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)

Figures And Tables

The first joint experimental results between SURA and CSES

XueMin Zhang, Vladimir Frolov, ShuFan Zhao, Chen Zhou, YaLu Wang, Alexander Ryabov, DuLin Zhai