Advanced Search



ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Cai, B., Xu, Q. C., Hu, X., Cheng, X., Yang, J. F. and Li, W. (2021). Analysis of the correlation between horizontal wind and 11-year solar activity over Langfang, China. Earth Planet. Phys., 5(3), 1–10doi: 10.26464/epp2021029

doi: 10.26464/epp2021029


Analysis of the correlation between horizontal wind and 11-year solar activity over Langfang, China


Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Environmental Space Situation Awareness, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China


College of Earth Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

Corresponding author: QingChen Xu,

Received Date: 2021-01-25
Web Publishing Date: 2021-05-01

In this study, long term observations of medium frequency (MF) radar at Langfang site (39.4°N, 116.7°E) from 2009 to 2020 have been used to analyze the dependence of the 11-year solar cycle on horizontal winds in the local mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The results show that the zonal wind is positively correlated with solar activity during spring at 80–84 km, and during summer at 80–82 km; the meridional wind is positively correlated with solar activity during spring at 84–88 km and during summer at 84–90 km. In contrast, the results show no correlation between the horizontal wind and solar activity in autumn and winter. We attempt to explain the correlations in terms of the changes in stratospheric temperature and the net flux of gravity waves during solar activities. In addition, annual and semiannual oscillations of the zonal/meridional wind were found by using the least squares fitting method on daily horizontal winds, which show negative correlations with solar activity at heights of 80–90 km.

Key words: MF radar, MLT, horizontal wind, solar cycle

Arnold, N. F., and Robinson, T. R. (1998). Solar cycle changes to planetary wave propagation and their influence on the middle atmosphere circulation. Ann. Geophys., 16(1), 69–76.

Bowman, K. P., and Krueger, A. J. (1985). A global climatology of total ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer. J. Geophys. Res., 90(D5), 7967–7976.

Bremer, J., Schminder, R., Greisiger, K. M., Hoffmann, P., Kürschner, D., and Singer, W. (1997). Solar cycle dependence and long-term trends in the wind field of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 59(5), 497–509.

Cervera, M. A., and Reid, I. M. (1995). Comparison of simultaneous wind measurements using colocated VHF meteor radar and MF spaced antenna radar systems. Radio Sci., 30(4), 1245–1261.

Dartt, D., Nastrom, G., and Belmont, A. (1983). Seasonal and solar cycle wind variations, 80-100 km. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 45(10), 707–718.

Gan, Q., Du, J., Fomichev, V. I., Ward, W. E., Beagley, S. R., Zhang, S. D., and Yue, J. (2016). Temperature responses to the 11 year solar cycle in the mesosphere from the 31 year (1979-2010) extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model simulations and a comparison with the 14 year (2002-2015) TIMED/SABER observations. J. Geophys. Res., 122(4), 4801–4818.

Greisiger, K. M., Schminder, R., and Kurschner, D. (1987). Long-period variations of wind parameters in the mesopause region and the solar cycle dependence. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 49(3), 281–285.

Guharay, A., Batista, P. P., and Andrioli, V. F. (2019). Investigation of solar cycle dependence of the tides in the low latitude MLT using meteor radar observations. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys., 193, 105083.

Jacobi, C. (1998). On the solar cycle dependence of winds and planetary waves as seen from mid-latitude D1 LF mesopause region wind measurements. Ann. Geophys., 16(12), 1534–1543.

Keuer, D., Hoffmann, P., Singer, W., and Bremer, J. (2007). Long-term variations of the mesospheric wind field at mid-latitudes. Ann. Geophys., 25(8), 1779–1790.

Merzlyakov, E. G., and Portnyagin, Y. I. (1999). Long-term changes in the parameters of winds in the midlatitude lower thermosphere (90-100 km). Izv. Akad. Nauk, Fiz. Atmos. Okeana, 35(4), 482–493.

Middleton, H. R., Mitchell, N. J., and Muller, H. G. (2002). Mean winds of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere at 52°N in the period 1988-2000. Ann. Geophys., 20(1), 81–91.

Murgatroyd, R. J. (1971). Dynamical modelling of the stratosphere and mesosphere. In G. Fiocco (Ed.), Mesospheric Models and Related Experiments. Dordrecht: Springer.

Namboothiri S. P., Manson, A. H., and Meek, C. E. (1993). Variations of mean winds and tides in the upper middle atmosphere over a solar cycle, Saskatoon, Canada, 52°N, 107°W. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 55(10), 1325–1334.

Quan, L., Cai, B., Hu, X., Xu, Q. C., and Li, L. (2021). Study of ionospheric D region changes during solar flares using MF radar measurements. Adv. Space Res., 67(2), 715–721.

Sprenger, K., and Schminder, R. (1968). On the significance of ionospheric drift measurements in the LF range. J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 30(5), 693–700.

Sun, W. (2015). Study on regional ionospheric characteristics based on technique of ground-based GPS and radio occulation (in Chinese). Wuhan: Wuhan University.222

Taubenheim, J. (1969). Statistische Auswertung Geophysikalischer und Meteorologischer Daten. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft Geest & Portig.222

Yang, J. F. (2016). Researches on the variations of atmospheric winds in Near Space at mid-latitude (in Chinese) [Ph. D. thesis]. Beijing: University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.222

Yang, J. F., Xiao, C. Y., Hu, X., and Xu, Q. C. (2017). Responses of zonal wind at ~40°N to stratospheric sudden warming events in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Sci. China Technol. Sci., 60(6), 935–945.


Bin Zhuang, YuMing Wang, ChengLong Shen, Rui Liu, 2018: A statistical study of the likelihood of a super geomagnetic storm occurring in a mild solar cycle, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 112-119. doi: 10.26464/epp2018012


Wen Yi, XiangHui Xue, JinSong Chen, TingDi Chen, Na Li, 2019: Quasi-90-day oscillation observed in the MLT region at low latitudes from the Kunming meteor radar and SABER, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 136-146. doi: 10.26464/epp2019013


Jian Rao, YueYue Yu, Dong Guo, ChunHua Shi, Dan Chen, DingZhu Hu, 2019: Evaluating the Brewer–Dobson circulation and its responses to ENSO, QBO, and the solar cycle in different reanalyses, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 166-181. doi: 10.26464/epp2019012


ShiBang Li, HaoYu Lu, Jun Cui, YiQun Yu, Christian Mazelle, Yun Li, JinBin Cao, 2020: Effects of a dipole-like crustal field on solar wind interaction with Mars, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 23-31. doi: 10.26464/epp2020005


LongKang Dai, Jun Cui, DanDan Niu, Hao Gu, YuTian Cao, XiaoShu Wu, HaiRong Lai, 2021: Is Solar Wind electron precipitation a source of neutral heating in the nightside Martian upper atmosphere?, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 1-10. doi: 10.26464/epp2021012


XiaoCheng Guo, YuCheng Zhou, Chi Wang, Ying D. Liu, 2021: Propagation of large-scale solar wind events in the outer heliosphere from a numerical MHD simulation, Earth and Planetary Physics. doi: 10.26464/epp2021024


ShuCan Ge, HaiLong Li, Lin Meng, MaoYan Wang, Tong Xu, Safi Ullah, Abdur Rauf, Abdel Hannachid, 2020: On the radar frequency dependence of polar mesosphere summer echoes, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 571-578. doi: 10.26464/epp2020061


Hui Tian, ZhongQuan Qu, YaJie Chen, LinHua Deng, ZhengHua Huang, Hao Li, Yue Zhong, Yu Liang, JingWen Zhang, YiGong Zhang, BaoLi Lun, XiangMing Cheng, XiaoLi Yan, ZhiKe Xue, YuXin Xin, ZhiMing Song, YingJie Zhu, Tanmoy Samanta, 2017: Observations of the solar corona during the total solar eclipse on 21 August 2017, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 68-71. doi: 10.26464/epp2017010


XiangHui Xue, DongSong Sun, HaiYun Xia, XianKang Dou, 2020: Inertial gravity waves observed by a Doppler wind LiDAR and their possible sources, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 461-471. doi: 10.26464/epp2020039


XinAn Yue, WeiXing Wan, Han Xiao, LingQi Zeng, ChangHai Ke, BaiQi Ning, Feng Ding, BiQiang Zhao, Lin Jin, Chen Li, MingYuan Li, JunYi Wang, HongLian Hao, Ning Zhang, 2020: Preliminary experimental results by the prototype of Sanya Incoherent Scatter Radar, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 579-587. doi: 10.26464/epp2020063


Yang Li, Zheng Sheng, JinRui Jing, 2019: Feature analysis of stratospheric wind and temperature fields over the Antigua site by rocket data, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 414-424. doi: 10.26464/epp2019040


KeDeng Zhang, Hui Wang, WenBin Wang, Jing Liu, ShunRong Zhang, Cheng Sheng, 2021: Nighttime meridional neutral wind responses to SAPS simulated by the TIEGCM: A universal time effect, Earth and Planetary Physics, 5, 52-62. doi: 10.26464/epp2021004


GuoZhu Li, BaiQi Ning, Ao Li, SiPeng Yang, XiuKuan Zhao, BiQiang Zhao, WeiXing Wan, 2018: First results of optical meteor and meteor trail irregularity from simultaneous Sanya radar and video observations, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 15-21. doi: 10.26464/epp2018002


Hao Chen, JinHu Wang, Ming Wei, HongBin Chen, 2018: Accuracy of radar-based precipitation measurement: An analysis of the influence of multiple scattering and non-spherical particle shape, Earth and Planetary Physics, 2, 40-51. doi: 10.26464/epp2018004


Bin Zhou, ShaoXiang Shen, Wei Lu, YuXi Li, Qing Liu, ChuanJun Tang, ShiDong Li, GuangYou Fang, 2020: The Mars rover subsurface penetrating radar onboard China's Mars 2020 mission, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 345-354. doi: 10.26464/epp2020054


Shun-Rong Zhang, Philip J. Erickson, Larisa P. Goncharenko, Anthea J. Coster, Nathaniel A. Frissell, 2017: Monitoring the geospace response to the Great American Solar Eclipse on 21 August 2017, Earth and Planetary Physics, 1, 72-76. doi: 10.26464/epp2017011


HuiJun Le, LiBo Liu, YiDing Chen, Hui Zhang, 2019: Anomaly distribution of ionospheric total electron content responses to some solar flares, Earth and Planetary Physics, 3, 481-488. doi: 10.26464/epp2019053


Tong Dang, JiuHou Lei, WenBin Wang, MaoDong Yan, DeXin Ren, FuQing Huang, 2020: Prediction of the thermospheric and ionospheric responses to the 21 June 2020 annular solar eclipse, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 231-237. doi: 10.26464/epp2020032


ZiChuan Li, Jun Cui, Jing Li, XiaoShu Wu, JiaHao Zhong, FaYu Jiang, 2020: Solar control of CO2 + ultraviolet doublet emission on Mars, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 543-549. doi: 10.26464/epp2020064


XiaoShu Wu, Jun Cui, YuTian Cao, WeiQin Sun, Qiong Luo, BinBin Ni, 2020: Response of photoelectron peaks in the Martian ionosphere to solar EUV/X-ray irradiance, Earth and Planetary Physics, 4, 390-395. doi: 10.26464/epp2020035

Article Metrics
  • PDF Downloads()
  • Abstract views()
  • HTML views()
  • Cited by(0)

Figures And Tables

Analysis of the correlation between horizontal wind and 11-year solar activity over Langfang, China

Bing Cai, QingChen Xu, Xiong Hu, Xuan Cheng, JunFeng Yang, Wen Li