# EPP

### 地球与行星物理

ISSN  2096-3955

CN  10-1502/P

Citation: Du, H. L., Cao, X., Ni, B. B., Fu, S., Ma, X., Yun, X. T., Long, M. Y., and Luo, Q. (2023). Distribution of O+ and O2 + fluxes and their escape rates in the near-Mars magnetotail: A survey of MAVEN observations. Earth Planet. Phys., 7(1), 1–10. http://doi.org/10.26464/epp2023002

SPACE PHYSICS: MAGNETOSPHERIC PHYSICS

## Distribution of O+ and ${\text{O}}_{\text{2}}^{\text{+}}$ fluxes and their escape rates in the near-Mars magnetotail: A survey of MAVEN observations

 1 Department of Space Physics, School of Electronic Information, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China 2 Chinese Academy of Sciences, Center for Excellence in Comparative Planetology, Hefei 230026, China
Key points:
• Planetary heavy ions (oxygen ions and molecular oxygen ions) in the Martian magnetotail are dominant in the tailward direction.
• Tailward heavy ion fluxes are larger in the −E (electric field) hemisphere than in the +E hemisphere.
• The escape rates of heavy ions are closely related with CIR and solar wind dynamic pressure.

Corresponding author: Xing Cao, cxing@whu.edu.cnBinBin Ni, bbni@whu.edu.cn

Web Publishing Date: 2022-09-16

Tailward ion outflows in the Martian-induced magnetotail are known to be one of the major channels for Martian atmospheric escape. On the basis of nearly 6.5 years of observations from the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission, we investigate the statistical distribution of tailward and Marsward fluxes of heavy ions (i.e., O+ and ${\rm{O}}_2^+$) in the near-Mars magnetotail and explore their characteristic responses to the corotating interaction region (CIR), solar wind dynamic pressure, and local magnetic field intensity. Our results show that the tailward fluxes of oxygen ions and molecular oxygen ions in the magnetotail are significantly greater than their Marsward fluxes and that the tailward flux of molecular oxygen ions is generally larger than that of oxygen ions. Furthermore, the tailward ion flux distribution exhibits dependence on the CIR, solar wind dynamic pressure, and local magnetic field strength in a manner stronger than the Marsward ion flux distribution. According to the distribution of tailward ion fluxes, we calculate the corresponding escape rates of heavy ions and show that when the CIR occurs, the total escape rates of oxygen ions and molecular oxygen ions increase by a factor of ~2 and ~1.2, respectively. We also find that the escape rates of heavy ions increase with the enhancement of solar wind dynamic pressure, whereas the overall effect of the local magnetic field is relatively weak. Our study has important implications for improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the Martian atmospheric escape and the evolution of the Martian atmospheric climate.

Distribution of O+ and ${\text{O}}_{\text{2}}^{\text{+}}$ fluxes and their escape rates in the near-Mars magnetotail: A survey of MAVEN observations